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Full text of "The number of man, the climax of civilization"


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 







fU^ 







THE NUMBER OF MAN 



WORKS BY PHILIP MAURO 



'ITHE WORLD AND ITS GOD. Second Edition, Revised. 
* With Nine Additional Chapters. Cloth boards, is. Paste 
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^HE NUMBER OF MAN: THE CLIMAX OF 
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/CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGE AND THEIR 
^ SIGNIFICANCE. An Address. 3 d. 

MODERN PHILOSOPHY: A Menace to the English- 
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^pHE PRESENT STATE OF THE CROPS. An 
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MORGAN AND SCOTT LTD., LONDON 




THE 

NUMBER OF MAN 

THE CLIMAX OF CIVILIZATION 



PHILIP MAURO 

COUNSELLOR-AT-LAW 

Author of 
' The World and its God" " Man's Day " "Life in the Word" etc. 



' ' Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding 
count the number of the beast : for it is THE NUMBER 
OF MAN ; and his number is 666" (Rev. xiii. 18) 



MORGAN & SCOTT L TD - 

(OFFICE OF "Ije Cljriatifttt") 
12, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS 
LONDON MCMX 



3T 

8 



PREFACE 

THE writer has attempted in this volume to set forth 
the chief results of an examination which he has made 
of the great religious and economic movements now in 
progress throughout the world. Human society the 
world over is stirred to-day as it has not been stirred 
since the time when it was split up into separate nations, 
tongues, and tribes ; and this remarkable and simul- 
taneous activity of all sections of the human family is 
easily the most notable characteristic of the day. The 
present examination has been undertaken for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the direction and probable outcome 
of these movements of the modern world. 

The inquiry is one of great importance, and of vital 
interest to all human beings. It carries us on to the 
end of all the struggles, trials, and efforts of mankind. 
It looks into the future to see what is to be the con- 
summation the complete numbering or summing up 
not merely of the present era of scientific civilization 
and industrial development, the age of machinery, 
but of the Career of Humanity as a whole. It 



1G15G49 



vi PREFACE 

seeks to ascertain the "NUMBER OF MAN" in its 
totality. 

The materials available for the conduct of such an 
investigation are abundant ; but there be few living in 
these days of high-pressure who have the leisure or 
ability to pursue it. There are now in progress con- 
spicuous movements, which affect great masses of 
humanity, and which present characteristics of the 
most striking nature. These movements are social, 
political, and religious. Their aims are radical, their 
strength is great, their speed is accelerating. In each 
one of them, when considered by itself, may be found 
indications that the affairs of humanity are approaching 
a crisis of the first magnitude. Taking them all into 
consideration collectively, one cannot fail to be im- 
pressed with the solemn conviction that mankind 
as a whole is upon the eve of what a competent 
observer of current affairs has designated "a great 
world-crisis." 

But if we come to share this conviction (which has 
obtained hold of many of the thoughtful minds of the 
day), we shall naturally wish to know all that may 
be learned concerning the nature of this crisis, its 
proximity or remoteness in time, and the changes in 
human society, and in mundane conditions generally, 
which it will bring about. To this end it will be 
both interesting and profitable to examine the more 
prominent of the movements of our day, to note the 



PREFACE vii 

essential features and aims of each, and to ascertain, so 
far as it is possible to do so, the direction they are 
severally taking and the destination at which each is 
likely to arrive. 

In pursuing this inquiry, the only way to exclude 
material error and to shut out the writer's own pre- 
conceptions, and the only method which will com- 
mand the confidence of the reader, will be to give the 
essential characteristics and aims of each movement in 
the language of some one prominently identified and 
in full sympathy therewith, and therefore competent 
to speak for it. This method has accordingly been 
adopted in the preparation of what follows. 

When the writer began his survey of the various 
fields of human activity, and the study of the chief 
characteristics and tendencies of the prominent move- 
ments now progressing therein, he did not in the least 
suspect the existence of any connection between those 
movements. On the contrary, between some of them, 
at least, there appeared to be irreconcilable antagonism. 
With that view of the state of modern society, he began 
to collect and to study the more significant utterances 
of the leaders and historians of these various move- 
ments of thought and action, dealing with them as 
he has been accustomed to do in making an analysis of 
a machine or industrial process ; that is to say, dis- 
tinguishing the essential features or principles, from 
the non-essential features or details, which could be 



viii PREFACE 

dispensed with or modified without changing the real 
character of the thing under examination. 

While engaged in this study, the truth dawned upon 
him, with the force of a great surprise, that all these 
remarkable movements, however diverse in appearance, 
were in reality identical in their fundamental principles, 
and furthermore that they were, one and all, con- 
verging towards a common goal. He found that, 
instead of being engaged in studying a group of 
different and conflicting movements, he was in fact 
observing various phases of a single movement, and 
that movement one which is world-wide in its influence 
and operation. He found that, throughout the whole 
world, wherever human societies exist, in Christendom 
and Heathendom, in Catholicism, Protestantism, 
Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and even 
in Agnosticism, there has suddenly occurred the simul- 
taneous uprising of mysterious forces, under whose 
potent influence even communities that have been 
stagnant throughout the whole Christian era, are 
throwing off their lethargy, are putting themselves 
into motion, as under a common impulse, and are 
pressing eagerly and enthusiastically in a common 
direction. 

The scene may be likened to a great scattered en- 
campment, whose divisions are composed of different 
races, variously attired, and differing widely among 
themselves in customs and language, but all sections 



PREFACE ix 

of which have simultaneously struck their tents and 
started forward in a direction which will quickly bring 
them to a common destination. 

This fact of the essential identity of the several move- 
ments of the hour is in itself of sufficient importance 
to interest all who are living in these energetic times. 
But what mostly concerns them to know is, that the 
features which are common to these movements, and 
which prove their essential identity, are the very 
features which, according to the prophetic Scriptures 
of the New Testament, are to characterize the period 
of the culmination of the career of humanity in its 
self-chosen path of departure from God's ways. 

This, however, is an anticipation, and is set forth at 
the outset, in order to stimulate the interest of the 
reader by giving a hint of the importance of the 
matters which are treated, however imperfectly and 
inadequately, in this volume. The writer is not careful 
to press his own conclusions upon the reader ; but desires 
rather to put the latter in a position to compare for 
himself the tendencies of these modern movements (as 
stated by those who are competent to speak for them), 
with the descriptions of the end of this age that are found 
in the prophetic Scriptures written more than eighteen 
centuries ago. With these materials before him, the 
reader of ordinary intelligence, if he be not one of 
those who have purposely turned away their ears from 
the truth and are turned to fables (2 Tim. iv. 4), can 



x PREFACE 

be safely left to draw his own conclusions regarding the 
significance of these strange and ivholly unprecedented 
things which are coming to pass on the earth. 

What is taking place is, in a word, the consumma- 
tion of all human activities, the very Climax of our 
imposing Civilization. There is a limit to what 
may be accomplished by the natural powers of man 
exerted upon the natural forces and resources of the 
physical universe ; and there is a limit to the forbear- 
ance of God. The results of human energy and human 
ingenuity are reaching their totality and are about to 
be summed up. The sum of all Man's efforts has been 
nearly reached. God has counted them all in advance ; 
and has given us the SUM TOTAL. Not only have man's 
days been numbered, and the hairs of his head, but 
his doings have also been numbered; and the hand- 
writing is upon the wall to be seen by all who have 
eyes to see. Here is wisdom. Let him who has 
understanding count the number ; for it is the 
'* NUMBER OF MAN," the totality of all his achieve- 
ments. It is the end of all things " under the sun." 

" Behold, this have I found, saith the Preacher, 
COUNTING ONE BY ONE TO FIND our THE ACCOUNT : 
. . . Lo, this only have I found, that God hath 
made man upright ; but they have sought out 
many inventions " (Eccl. vii. 27, 29). 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE, v 

SECTION 1 
HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF THE PRESENT DAY 

Knowledge of physical forces and properties 
of matter applied to multiplying facilities 
for travel and inter - communication 
Many running to and fro, and knowledge 
being increased, ..... I 

Prophetic descriptions of the " Times of 
the End" ; a great System and a great 
Leader, ...... 5 

The Second Wild-Beast of Revelation xiii. : 
The Last World Power, 10 

The Great Monopoly: the Religious " Trust," 17 

THE TWO MAIN FIELDS OF HUMAN 
ENTERPRISE : 

Religion and Business Unprecedented 
activity in both fields ; swift movements 
and sudden changes, . . . 19 



xii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE ECONOMIC FIELD. Efforts to better 
the economic condition of Human Beings. 
The " Ills of Humanity " ; what is 
their source ? Do they - proceed from 
Man's environment, or from Man him- 
self ? 22 

Human schemes of deliverance based on the 
theory that the source of human ills is in 
Man's surroundings, . . . .24 

Aids to Industrial Development and some of 
the results of such development, . . 27 

THE RELIGIOUS FIELD. Great and rapid 
changes now taking place. All Religions 
and all Religious Denominations affected. 
Conditions unprecedented in human 
history. A great and world-wide spirit- 
ual crisis at hand, 30 

The religious and economic movements of 
the present day have certain features in 
common, ...... 34 

(1) Their Common Ideal is the formation of' 
a Great Consolidation. The dream of a 
" Great Unification." Human interests 

of all sorts to be combined, 35 

(2) They have for a Common Basis, "Faith in 
the Powers of Man" to effect a permanent 
betterment of the condition of humanity, 



CONTENTS xiii 

PAGE 

and to establish " Ideal Social Condi- 
tions," 41 

(3) They embrace a Common Religious 
Principle, ' The Divinity of Man." 
Humanism and the coming " Church of 
Man," 44 

Human Science : its relation to the Present- 
Day Activities, 48 

Two Bodies of Human Beings now in 
process of formation : The Body of 
Christ, and the Body of Antichrist, . 50 

Headless Humanity. Thelacktobe supplied : 

God's Method and Satan's, . . 54 

Factors which Present- Day Movements 
overlook. Sin and the corruption of 
human nature not taken into account, and 
no provision for dealing with them, . 56 



SECTION II 

NEW THEOLOGIES 

Conditions in " the latter days," . . 62 

The New Theology of Old England, . . 65 
Mr. Campbell's statement of the new and 

popular religious principles of our day, . 65 
The Divinity of Humanity. Every man has 



xiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

" God within," and is hence a discerner 

of truth, 66 

Proofs Scriptural and other no longer 
needed. If " in search for truth, trust the 
Voice of God within you," ... 67 
The "Fall of God," . .68 

" No dividing line " between God's being 
and man's, ...... 7 1 

Democratic principles incorporated in the 
New Theology. Religion must be made 
acceptable " to the masses" ... 74 
Every man a Saviour. ' ' No stopping-place 

between sinner and Saviour," . . 76 

New Theology aims at the " Consolidation 

of all Human Interests" ... 78 
New Theology identified with Socialism. 
" The Religious Articulation of the Great 
Social Movement," .... 79 

" New Theology is the Religion of Science," 81 
New Theology in various Religious De- 
nominations, ... .82 

Mr. Campbell and Mr. Blatchford, . . 85 

THE NEW THEOLOGY OF NEW ENG- 
LAND, .... .88 

Dr. Gordon on " The Collapse of the New 
England Theology," .... 88 



CONTENTS xv 

PAGE 

Character of the New England Theology, . 92 
Reasons why it "collapsed," ... 97 
Beneath the "best religious consciousness" 

of the time, 99 

The teaching of the Bible " outgrown in 

knowledge and in ethical conceptions," . 100 
The " collapse " of Bible doctrine in the 

times of King Ahab, .... 101 
The "collapse " of the doctrine of Christ in 

His own day, ..... 102 
" Bondage to a book" Unitarian-Trini- 

tarianism, . . . . . . 104 

NEW THEOLOGY IN NEW ENGLAND : . 105 

" Humanism " our " greatest word," . 106 

Man's essential " nature" . . . 106 
God's character to be learned by study of 

" man's world," ..... no 
The two voices that speak out of the realm 

of the unseen, 113 

" Looking for the Genius," . . .114 

"MODERNISM" or ADVANCED THEO- 
LOGY IN THE CHURCH OF 
ROME : A remarkable movement, . 115 
" The Programme of Modernism." Its 



xvi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

initial assumption that the old " bases of 
faith have proved themselves rotten beyond 
cure," 120 

" // the Foundations be destroyed, what can 
the righteous do ? " (Ps. xi. 3) . . 121 

Modernism in relation to " Higher Criti- 
cism " and Modern Science, . . .122 

Modernism ; its denial of Christ, . .125 

Rejects miracles and prophecy because they 
offend " the modern mind," . . .126 

Positive doctrines of Modernism. Its aim 
to establish in the Church of Rome the 
Standards and Ideals of the "Modern 
World" and to realise the " dream of a 
Great Unification" . . . .128 

Modernism undertakes to bring the " re- 
ligious experience of Christianity into 
line with the data of contemporary science 
and philosophy ," .... 131 

" THE POPE'S ENCYCLICAL ON MO- 
DERNISM," 133 

A withering denunciation : " The Modernists 
are enemies of the Cross of Christ" who 
assail the faith " by arts entirely new and 
full of deceit," 133 

The Pope's description of the methods of the 



CONTENTS xvii 

PAGE 

Modernists. Their " boundless effron- 
tery " and " domineering overbearance." 
The doctrine of Humanism or " the 
identity of man with God." Their 
system destructive of " all Religion." 
Modernism defined by " Infallible 
Authority " as the "Synthesis of all 
Heresies," 136 

THE "COMING CATHOLICISM": fore- 
seen by Rev. Newman Smythe . . . 141 

The "Passing of Protestantism" ; signs of 
disintegration and " of the passing of the 
Protestant Age of History," . . . 143 

Dr. C. H. Aked and the " Salvation of 
Christianity," 144 

Modernism approved and hailed as a 
" Mediating " Movement. Its mission 
the " Reconciliation of the Church with 
Modern Thought," . . . .146 

A " World of Titanic Industrial Forces " 
demands a religion suited to it, . . 147 

" A new religious order " arising, the 
" greatest that the world has known," 
drawn from all nations and classes and 
from " all Churches," .... 148 

The energising principle of this great Move- 
b 



xviii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

ment said to be the vitalising and profound 
faith that " God is in Man," that the 
Divine is present in the thoughts of 
men 150 

Progressive Catholics " in the same stream " 
with other advanced theologians . . 151 

The old prophets delivered their messages 
in the Name of the Lord. The modern 
prophets who discredit the former, give no 
authority for their messages nor any reason 
why they should be heeded . . .151 

7s Modern Civilisation characterised by 
" the love of the truth," or by failure to 
receive the love of the truth ? . . . 154 

Modernism lay ing" New Foundations," . 156 

The present Pope a "Parenthesis," . . 157 

Characteristics of Mr. Smythes " Coming 
Catholicism," 158 

The unification of mankind promoted by 
" Internationalism " that is, the 
" Federation of Industrial Interests 
throughout the World," which calls for a 
corresponding Religious Federation, . 159 
What the Religion of Humanity has to offer 
to the individual man. The contrast with 
Christianity, . . . . . .161 

A Gigantic Deception, 163 



CONTENTS xix 

FACE 

SPIRITISM: ... .164 

Prophecy foretells a rise of Spiritism in 
"the latter times," characterised by direct 
teachings of evil spirits or demons. 
" Forbidding to Marry," . . .165 

Remarkable change of attitude on the part 
of Physical Science towards Spiritism, . 166 

Spiritistic Seances conducted by well-known 
men of science, 167 

Efforts to communicate with departed spirits 
of Messrs. Myers and Hodgson. A re- 
markable "Report." Cryptic Messages 
from the " Unseen," Scientists de- 
ceived, 168 

Spiritism is supplying the supernatural 
elements required to complete the Religion 
of Humanity, ..... 174 

Spiritism extending its influence in the 
sphere of professing Christianity, . . 175 

An alleged communication from John 
and Charles Wesley. " New Theology " 
taught by the spirits, .... 176 

Displaced and Substituted Personality an 
experience of Spiritism, and also of Hyp- 
notism, " Suggestive Therapeutics," etc., . 178 

Displaced Personality in gatherings of 
Christians seeking a new " experience," . 180 



xx CONTENTS 

PACE 

Impairing the Authority of the Bible, . . 182 
A Strange Fellowship, . . . 183 



SECTION III 



Human activities in the Economic Field. 
Pronounced Characteristics of the existing 
Economic Order of Society, . . . 185 
Business taking on a religious guise, . 187 
Unequal distribution of the rapidly accumu- 
lating wealth. Bulk of the increase goes 
to the non-producers, .... 190 
" Panics" and "Business Depressions," . 192 
The Socialistic explanation of these economic 

phenomena, 194 

The Problem of the Unemployed, . .198 
Mankind separating into two classes, one 
characterised by having property, and 
the other by not having it, . . . 199 

SOCIALISM: .... .200 

Importance of the Social Problem. Modern 
Social conditions from the standpoint of a 
moderate Socialist. Economic Contrasts, 201 



CONTENTS xxi 



PAGE 



The Spread of Socialistic Principles, . . 206 
Sympathy and Co-operation of the Clergy, . 207 
Socialism the combination of the Temporal 

and Religious Interests of Mankind. 

Fulfils all the main features of the System 

of Prophecy, 208 

Socialism permeating the professing Church, 210 
Mr. Arnold White on the future of Religion ; 

a dubious and dismal prospect, . .212 

CAPITALISM, PLUTOCRACY IN ITS 

FINAL STAGE: .... 214 

The trend of Capitalism, like that of Social- 
ism, is towards producing a single Vast 
Monopoly, ...... 215 

" The Trust of Trusts," .... 216 

" The Birth of the Superman," . . . 219 
Mr. H. G. Wells' Type of Socialism, . . 222 
Awaiting the " Intelligent Collective 

Mind," ...... 223 

Power divorced from Wisdom, . . 228 
The " Good Will in Man," . . .228 
Mr. A. Graham Bell on the Era of Mono- 
poly, 230 

The question of the hour, " What shall we do 
with the Trusts ?" or " What shall they 
do with us ?" . . 231 



xxii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

CAPITALISM, Its Defensive Measures, . 232 
The increasing Complexity of the Industrial 
System creates an imperative demand for 
" Genius of a New Order" . . . 234 
The "Higher Education" devoting itself 
to the development of a new type of 
genius, to wit, the " Social Economist," . 235 
Man's three great problems : the appro- 
priation of natural forces ; the organisa- 
tion of industry ; the spiritual direction 
of human affairs. The last now being 
faced, ... -237 

THE PREDICTED END OF CAPITAL- 
ISM : .238 

The heaping up of treasure " in the last 

days," 240 

The .Plutocratic Class. " Heaping up 

Treasure," 241 

The Cry of the Labourer, .... 246 
Living in pleasure and luxuriating in the 

earth, 248 

" Be patient, therefore, brethren, till the 

Coming of the Lord" .... 250 

THE RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF SOCIAL- 
ISM : . 250 



CONTENTS xxiii 

PAGE 

The foundation doctrine of Socialism is 
essentially religious in character. Wor- 
ship of " Humanity " a necessary ele- 
ment of Socialism, . . . .251 

The Creed of the " Religion of Humanity," . 253 

SOCIALISM AND MARRIAGE : . . 256 
" Doctrines of demons, forbidding to 

marry," 257 

The assault upon the institution of 

Marriage, 258 

Factors operating at the present time to 

overthrow the institution of Marriage, . 258 

ZIONISM: 264 

The rise and growth of Zionism. The 
awakening of the " national " Hebrew 
consciousness, ..... 265 
The opportunity of Jewish financiers, . . 266 
A great Creditor Nation. The Money 
Trust. Zionism not a " Religious " 
Revival, 269 

SECTION IV 

LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

The " Desolator " who is to come " on the 

wing of abominations," . . . 270 
Warnings in Scripture against Idolatry, . 271 



xxiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The "modern man" an idolater. Idolatry 
defined, ....... 272 

The imagination of man and his images, . 278 

THE METHOD OF IDOL-MAKING : . 279 
Man the maker of the gods to which he 
looks to do for him what he cannot do for 
himself, ...... 281 

" THE GODS MANY" OF THE MODERN 

MAN: 286 

Physical agencies expected to work spiritual 
results, 287 

"SCIENCE": 291 

The theological use made of the abstraction 

called " Science," ..... 292 
" Science " as a worker of miracles and a 

revealer of truth, ..... 294 
" Science " incapable of effecting spiritual 

results or imparting spiritual information, 297 
" Science " as an authority in opposition 

to the teachings of Scripture, . . . 299 

" Philosophy." The origin of stone-axes, . 303 

" Science" and Faith, .... 305 

" Science " an imaginary thing, i.e. an Idol, 306 

No depository for the teachings of Science, . 307 

The Physical Sciences, . . . 308 



CONTENTS xxv 

PAGE 

ASTRONOMY. The sphere of Astronomical 
Science. Its principal Achievements, 
destitute of spiritual value and signifi- 
cance. The uniformity of nature. Stellar 
distances and dimensions. The orbit of 
an invisible satellite. But no informa- 
tion about the " Bright and Morning 
Star," 308 

CHEMISTRY: . . . . . .312 

The atomic theory. Chemical theories 
afford no foundations for a New Theology, 313 

Chemistry transforms many substances 
but cannot change human nature or 
cleanse the heart from sin, . . .315 

GEOLOGY: 315 

A young Science with the frailties of youth, . 316 
Nothing among the facts and guesses of 
Geology that has a spiritual value. Many 
geological evidences of the " power of 
death," but no information touching the 
resurrection of the dead, . . .317 

A QUEST FOR " THE TEACHINGS OF 
SCIENCE" BY AN ANXIOUS 
SOUL: .... 318 



xxvi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The " State of Science." Men and Books, . 319 
Sir Oliver Lodge on "Faith allied with 

Science," ...... 322 

" Science " merely a name under which 

Man worships himself, .... 323 

EVOLUTION . 323 

A mighty God with many worshippers. 
Evolution and Humanism, . . . 324 

Forms of worship under Humanism. 
What will they be ? . . . 326 

Worship must be addressed to a " Person- 
ality," 329 

MONEY : 329 

The Unrighteous Mammon. The almost 
universal tendency to make money a god 
in trusting it, and setting the affections 
on it, ... . .330 

The Image of Gold, 333 

ULTIMATE INTELLECTUALISM. The 

Tendency of the Higher Education, . 335 

The Harvard " Class Poem " : the Refined 
Blasphemy of Humanism . . . 338 

" No God for a gift God gave us 
MANKIND ALONE must save us." 



CONTENTS xxvii 



CONCLUSION 

PAGE 

An appeal to the English-speaking Nations 
to recall the blessings they have received 
of God, . . 345 

The greatest National Apostasy of all 
history, ...... 346 

" Come out of her, ' My People,' ' . . 350 



THE NUMBER OF MAN 



SECTION I 

HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF THE 
PRESENT DAY 

THE times in which we live are characterized on the 
surface by great activity. Many are running to and 
fro, and knowledge is being increased. This is 
particularly true of knowledge concerning the pro- 
perties of matter and the more subtle of the energies 
of Nature. In these directions man's knowledge has 
been greatly extended ; and this newly acquired 
knowledge has served to stimulate activity, since man 
has learned that such knowledge may be turned to 
account in various ways which add to the comfort or 
minister to the pride and glory of mankind. 

This newly acquired knowledge is being applied 
mainly to the multiplication of facilities for inter-com- 
munication. That which, more than any other feature, 
distinguishes the social life of this generation from 
that of past generations, is the extraordinary develop- 
ment of appliances for the easy and rapid transporta- 



2 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

tion of men, merchandise, and messages, from one 
part of the earth to another. The prophecy of Daniel, 
" many shall run to and fro " is having an astonish- 
ing fulfilment in the present day. The wireless 
telegraph and the flying-machine have at last made 
the air a medium of communication ; and beyond this 
there is nothing in this direction for human daring to 
undertake. It is important to note that the prophet 
Daniel gave the above-quoted picture of human de- 
velopment as a characteristic of the " time of the end " 
(Dan. xii. 4). 

Prodigious energies have been developed in recent 
years from natural sources, and have been brought to 
a certain extent under man's control, to do his bidding. 
Nor is there as yet any sign of a slackening of the rate 
of the progress of this development. On the contrary, 
the achievements of each decade seem to stimulate the 
leaders of the world's progress to still greater exertions. 

The movement thus far has been characterized by 
rapid acceleration, until the state of society in its chief 
commercial centres has become one of feverish activity. 
Where it will end, is a question which those who are 
engaged (voluntarily or otherwise) in the industrial 
movement have little time to consider, and which 
perhaps could not be answered to their satisfaction. 
This, however, is the question to which the writer 
proposes to seek an answer. Even though we may 
not find a sure answer, we may at least consider the 
tendencies and direction of this great activity of our 



"WHAT OF THE NIGHT?" 3 

day ; for while there is not in all cases a clear and 
definite aim in the minds of its leaders, the era of 
industrial activity has nevertheless developed pro- 
nounced and conspicuous characteristics, whereof even 
the casual observer cannot fail to take note. 

Have these pronounced characteristics of present- 
day activity any special significance ? Do they bear 
any special message to us ? The voices of the 
twentieth century of the Christian era are many and 
discordant ; but do they sound any definite warning ? 
If we cry to the watchmen upon the walls of the city 
which men have builded, " What of the night ? " will 
they be able to discern anything of special import 
among the crowd of coming events which are rushing 
toward us ? If the ages have indeed been framed by 
the word of God (Heb. xi. 3) upon a definite plan 
analogous to the design observable in the visible 
universe, are we approaching one of those crises which 
mark the closing up of the affairs of one age and the 
inauguration of another ? 

Such questions are common, and are becoming more 
so. Whatever one's theory may be as to the nature 
and source of the principle of this social restlessness, 
there are large and increasing numbers of observant 
people who realize that energies have been aroused 
which are fast developing beyond the control of exist- 
ing moral and governmental restraints. This, of 
course, betokens social disruption of some sort ; and as 
is inevitable when the restrained energies are gaining 



4 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

in force, the postponement of the crisis, as would be 
effected by strengthening the existing restraints, does 
but tend to increase the violence of the disruption 
when it at last takes place. 

These pages are written for those who have the 
inclination to go aside for a little season from the rush 
of these "difficult times," with the special object of 
casting a contemplative eye upon the conspicuous 
movements now in progress, and of noting the direc- 
tion and rate of their advance. 

There is an available light, with the aid of which 
this situation may be profitably studied. That light 
is the word of prophecy made more sure, whereunto 
(we are told) we do well if we take heed, as unto a 
light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn 
and the Day Star arise (2 Pet. i. 19). Of this light 
we will endeavour to avail ourselves, humbly seeking, 
in its use, the guidance of the Holy Spirit, Who alone 
can instruct us therein. 

THE GREAT CONSOLIDATION AND 
ITS HEAD 

THE SYSTEM AND THE MAN 

An important part of the ministry of the Holy Spirit, 
as announced by the Lord Jesus before His death, was 
to be the revealing of coming events. " He will show 
you things to come " (John xvi. 13). In fulfilment of 
this promise, we find in the New Testament Scriptures 
many predictions of events that are to occur on the 



THE " GREAT COMBINE " AND ITS HEAD 5 

earth. Among these predictions are a number of very 
clear statements of events that are to happen, and con- 
ditions that are to develop, at the period of the 
culmination of the present age and the beginning of 
that which is to follow. 

Very conspicuous among these coming things, 
whereof the Spirit of God speaks in the Scriptures, 
are a coming System or Organization, and 
a coming Man who is to be the directing head of 
that system. In pursuing the object of the present 
study, it is needful to ascertain at the outset what has 
been written for our admonition about these coining 
things. But while we should give the most earnest 
heed to what the Spirit has revealed on these important 
subjects, lest we miss the very purpose for which they 
have been written, we should above all things remember 
that believers are not taught to look for a system to 
arise out of the earth, but to look for the Saviour to 
come out of heaven (Phil. iii. 20). The grace of God 
which brought salvation to them, teaches them (believers) 
how they should live while " looking for that blessed 
Hope" (Titus ii. 13). They have turned to God from 
idols, not to wait for "that man of sin the son of 
perdition " (2 Thess. ii. 3), but " to serve the living and 
true God, and to wait for His Son from Heaven, 
Whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus, which 
delivered us from the wrath to come " (1 Thess. i. 9, 
10). The Son of God is to come to earth again ; and 
the wrath of God is also to come. We look for the 



6 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

former, not for the^latter ; and if we see the storm- 
clouds of the wrath to come gathering on the horizon, 
it is not that we may be occupied with them, but that 
we may be the more intent in looking for HIM. 

Furthermore, the teaching of the prophetic word 
appears to be that these last prodigies, in which all the 
restless energies of man are to have their consumma- 
tion, will not occur until the Church, the body of 
Christ, shaU have been caught away from the earth to 
meet the Lord in the air, in fulfilment of 1 Thess. iv. 
1517. Not until this great and now imminent event 
shall have taken place (at least, such is the writer's 
understanding of prophecy) will that "lawless one" 
come into public view, whose wonderful career is to be 
abruptly cut off by the coming of the Lord with His 
saints, whom He has previously taken out of the world. 
Then will He consume that lawless one, the son of 
perdition, with the breath of His mouth, and destroy 
him with the outshining (" epiphany ") of His presence 
(2 Thess. ii. 8). 

If, therefore, we are able, at the present moment, to 
see clear indications that the formation of the last 
great human System and the advent of the wonderful 
genius, the "superman"" who is to be its masterful 
leader, are close at hand, this should have the effect 
of arousing us to a state of keen watchfulness for our 
Lord's coming ; and of stimulating us to extraordinary 
diligence in redeeming the little time that remains for 
preaching the gospel of the grace of God. If we may 



"ANOTHER SHALL COME" 7 

see even now the approach of the wrath to come, then 
we may assuredly know thereby that the coming of the 
Lord draweth near. He must come first, since He is 
to deliver us from the wrath to come. 

The subject about to be presented for our considera- 
tion may be fittingly introduced by reference to those 
Scriptures which speak of a coming man, who shall be 
the embodiment of all those qualities that capture 
human admiration, and who will attain to the very 
pinnacle of human greatness. 

John v. 43 : " If ANOTHER shall come in his own 
name, him ye will receive." This was spoken by the 
Lord Jesus to the Jews, who would not receive 
Him. " He came to His own, and His own (people) 
received Him not" (John i. 11). Having rejected 
their true Messiah, the Jews will accept in His stead 
an impostor. Hence the latter is given the designa- 
tion, amongst others, of the "Antichrist," signifying 
one who is accepted as, or instead of, Christ. Obvi- 
ously the man who can so impose upon the Jews 
must have abilities of a very remarkable and admir- 
able sort. 

1 John ii. 18 : " Ye have heard that Antichrist 
shall come." There have been many antichrists, as 
this passage tells us ; that is to say, many who have 
aimed at the religious and commercial ascendency over 
men which the Antichrist shall actually exercise. 
These, however, are but miniatures of that great 



8 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

personage who will be occupying the place of supremacy 
over human enterprise at the time of the Lord's visible 
return to the earth. 

John xiv. 30 : " The prince (ruler) of this world 
cometh/' 1 Whatever may be the immediate applica- 
tion of this statement of the Lord Jesus, we know that 
Satan, the prince of this existing world-system, is 
coming to it at the end of the age in a special sense ; 
for he is to be " cast out into the earth, 11 and woe is 
pronounced upon the earth-dwellers because the Devil 
is come down unto them having great wrath, because 
he knoweth that he hath but a short time (Rev. xii. 
9, 12). Furthermore, the coming of that Lawless One 
is to be "after the ENERGIZING OF SATAN, with 
all power and signs, and wonders of falsehood" 
(2 Thess. ii. 9). He will be endowed with supernatural 
power and intelligence. 

Dan. ix. 27 (R.V.): "And upon the wing of 
abominaticns shall come ONE THAT MAKETH DESOLATE." 
The Lord Jesus refers to this personage in 
the prophecy recorded in Matt, xxiv., designat- 
ing him (ver. 15) as "the abomination of desolation 
spoken of by Daniel the prophet." The culmination 
of idolatries or abominations, that is to say, of all 
forms of false worship, will occur in the worship of a 
man who is to occupy the sanctuary of the restored 
temple. We shall speak hereafter of the idolatries of 
the present day ; for there never was a more idolatrous 
time than the present, and it is upon the wing of 



"THE LAWLESS ONE" 9 

these idolatries (called in Scripture "abominations'") 
that the Desolator is to come. 

The well-known passage 2 Thess. ii. 3-10, gives us 
an intensely vivid description of the supernatural 
manifestations which will attend the advent of this 
" Man of Sin, 1 ' or " Lawless One," as he is there called. 
The sin of Man has its final outcome and fruition in 
the Man of sin. This is to be the sum and consumma- 
tion of all the centuries of human development and 
culture ; and his coming is to be marked and rendered 
illustrious by the working of Satan in all mighty work 
and wonders of falsehood, and in every deceit of un- 
righteousness in them that perish. 

Such an appeal to the admiration of men, who are 
even now being well schooled in hero-worship, will be 
irresistible to all " whose names are not written in the 
Lamb's book of Life " (Rev. xiii. 8). 

But the fullest description we have of the advent 
of this wonderful personage is found in Rev. xiii. 11-18, 
that being the passage which describes the second of 
the two wild beasts, the one which the apostle John 
saw coming up out of the earth. This portion of 
Scripture claims our very careful attention, and will 
amply repay it. 

" I saw another wild-beast ascending our OF THE 
EARTH." 

Unbelieving men are confidently looking for deliver- 
ance to come up " out of the earth " ; that is to say, 
they expect it to arise out of the development of the 



10 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

present order of things ; whereas believers are taught 
to look for their deliverance to come out of heaven. 

THE SECOND WILD-BEAST OF 
REVELATION XIII. 

Revelation xiii. contains the record of a vision of 
two wild-beasts which come successively into view, and 
it is needful to distinguish between them. 

Chapter xii. tells how the Dragon, who is that old 
serpent, the Devil, enraged by the escape of the woman 
who gave birth to the manchild, goes to make war 
upon the remnant of her seed, who keep the com- 
mandments of God and hold the testimony of Jesus. 
The Dragon then proceeds to call up out of the sea 
an agent to be used in the execution of his design ; 
and accordingly he takes his stand upon the sand of 
the sea (Rev. xii. 17, xiii. 1, R.V.). 1 Then John sees 
arising out of the sea a ten-horned beast. This first of 
the two beasts is easily identified with the fourth beast 
which Daniel forsaw arising out of the sea (Dan. vii. 
1-8), and of which the angel, in expounding the vision 
to Daniel, said, " The fourth beast shall be the fourth 
Kingdom upon the earth." This first beast, therefore, 
represents a great political power, or world-ruling 
empire, composed of a federation of ten Kingdoms ; 
and to it Satan shall give his power, and his throne, 
and great authority. 

1 It is the Dragon, not the Apostle, who " stood upon 
the sand of the sea." 



THE LAMB-LIKE POTENTATE 11 

The dominion of this ungodly political power is to 
be universal, for there is to be given to it " power over 
all kindreds and tongues and nations " (ver. 7). 

Then (Rev. xiii. 11) the apostle beheld another 
beast coming up, not out of the sea, but out of the 
earth or land, which is generally taken as signify- 
ing a settled and ordered condition of society, as 
distinguished from a confused and unsettled condi- 
tion of the nations, as signified by the sea (Rev. 
xvii. 15). 

This second beast is not a political or other system, 
but a man. Later on, he is given the title " The False 
Prophet," which is in evident contrast to Christ's title 
as the True Prophet. Rev. xix. 20 clearly identifies 
the false prophet with the second beast of chapter xiii. 
Moreover, what is said of him in chapter xiii. shows 
that the beast represents a man. 

The description of this beast is striking, and should 
receive careful attention. 

1. " He had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as 
a dragon." In these words we have a summary state- 
ment of his external appearance and of his real internal 
character. 

In appearance and manner, that is to say, in all that 
meets the eye, he is " like a lamb." His seeming 
guilelessness will invite and win confidence from all. 
His motives will be apparently pure, disinterested, and 
above suspicion. He will be a born leader of men, a 
great reformer, whose mission will be to elevate 



12 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

humanity, to remove injustices and inequalities, and to 
establish ideal social conditions. 

This is, of course, Satan's counterfeit of the true Lamb 
seen by John in the next recorded vision (chap. xiv. 1). 

So much for the external appearance of the coming 
man. But speech comes from within, and his true 
character is indicated by his speech, which is "as a 
dragon." Externally lamb-like, internally dragon-like, 
no more fearful combination could be imagined. It is 
a marvellous description, far beyond human ability to 
furnish, that is given to us in these few quiet words. 
Whether consciously to himself or not, this man will 
be but the tool of the great Dragon, serving his deep, 
cunning, and malignant purposes, and all the better 
because they are veiled behind an appearance and 
manner which inspire unquestioning confidence. 

2. Then there is a reference to the great miracles 
which this superman is to perform. " He doeth great 
wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from 
heaven on the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth 
them that dwell on the earth by the means of those 
miracles which he had the power to do." 

This corresponds closely with the words of the 
prophecy of the Lord Jesus, Who foretold that, at 
the period of the great tribulation, there should arise 
" false Christs and false prophets, and shall show great 
signs and wonders; insomuch that, if possible, they 
shall deceive the very elect " (Matt. xxiv. 24). And 
He adds, " Behold, I have told you before." 



"THE WORKING OF SATAN" 13 

Likewise, in full agreement with this is the statement 
of 2 Thess. ii. 9, 10 : " Whose coming is after the working 
of Satan with all power, and signs and lying wonders, 
and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness." 

Each of these passages speaks of extraordinary signs 
and wonders, which will have the effect of deceiving 
practically the whole world. 

3. This coming magnate is to be supported by 
the political power of the day, and is also to be 
supernaturally endowed by Satan. This is shown by 
the above-quoted passage from 2 Thess. ii. It also 
appears from Rev. xiii. 12. "And he exerciseth all 
the power (or authority) of the first beast before 
him." 

4. This potentate will exercise supreme control over 
the religious worship of the time ; for he " causeth the 
earth and them that dwell therein to worship the first 
beast," and " that as many as would not worship the 
image of the beast should be killed." 

It will seem strange to some, and even unbelievable, 
that the present tendencies to extreme religious toler- 
ance and liberality should culminate in a condition 
of such absolute intolerance. But thus it is that 
extremes often meet ; and the foregoing prediction 
will not seem so incredible to those who have watched 
the rapid rise of Socialism. The first beast is the 
State, the supreme political authority, and the 
religion of Socialism is the worship of Humanity, 
whose authority according to that ^system is to be 



14 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

vested absolutely in the State. This will be unfolded 
as we proceed with our inquiry. 

5. This great personage will also exercise complete 
control over all industrial operations ; for " he causes 
all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, 
to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their fore- 
heads ; and that no man might buy or sell save he that 
had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number 
of his name." 

The general purport of this is plain enough, although 
we must await the progress of events for comprehension 
of the details of the system here indicated. This 
important passage of Scripture puts clearly before us 
the prediction of a world-wide consolidation, syndicate, 
or merger, a mammoth monopoly, a titanic " trust," 
which shall absolutely control the marketing of all 
commodities; insomuch that no one will be able to 
engage in any commercial operation whatever, except 
under the sanction of the trade-mark of the beast. 

Such a state of things would have seemed the wildest 
kind of an improbability a century ago ; but to-day the 
ordinary observer is able to discern, without any aid 
from prophecy, indications of the speedy arrival of 
this gigantic business organization, the "Trust of 
Trusts." 

6. The description of the vision closes with a verse 
upon which much ingenuity has been expended, and to 
little purpose. " Here is wisdom. Let him that hath 
understanding count the number of the beast ; for it 



"HIS NUMBER IS 666" 15 

is the number of a man ; and his number is six hundred 
three score and six." 

Undoubtedly much will depend upon the " under- 
standing " of this verse by those who shall be on the 
earth at the time of the occurrence of these great 
events ; and the passage seems to contain the assurance 
that those who fear God will be able to count correctly 
the number of the beast. But for our present purpose 
it suffices to get an outline of the meaning. The 
explanation contained in the verse itself is that the 
number " is the number of Man " man's number. In 
the light of current events this is quite intelligible, 
within limits. " And his number is 666.". Man's 
number is 6, the number of weakness and incomplete- 
ness, since it just " comes short" of the perfect number 
7. Man's two main characteristics as stated in 
Romans iii. 23, are that he "has sinned and comes 
short." Man was created on the sixth day, and is 
thus from the beginning associated with that number. 
His work, moreover, is to be done in six days. 

But here we have man's number thrice repeated. 
There is in this a suggestion of the fulness of develop- 
ment of humanity, and of human institutions, the 
ripening, in the last great system over which the 
superman will preside, of all the schemes and efforts 
and inventive genius of mankind. It is the finality of 
"progress," the consummation of "civilization," that 
is to say of man's career of self-will following upon his 
departure from God at the instigation of the devil. It 



16 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

is the sum total, the three dimensions, the length, 
breadth, and thickness of human achievements ; and 
hi every direction the count is six. It is man's number 
carried to its highest coefficient. 

And here the vision breaks off, showing that this is 
the ultimate condition of that state of things which 
constitutes the subject-matter of the vision. 

Gathering together the main features of this re- 
markable vision, we find that it pictures to us the 
outcome of the era of industrial activity, to wit, a 
mighty and world-wide monopoly or consolidation, 
embracing in its scope both the religious and the 
secular affairs of all mankind. 

It is this strange blend of things religious and secular, 
the combination of church and business, which marks 
this system as something unique and extraordinary. 
That there should be eventually a great business 
combination, a single huge " Trust,"" has been foreseen 
since early in the current era of consolidations. And 
that this idea of "consolidation"" should, along with 
other "business methods" (which are so "highly 
esteemed among men "), find its way into the ecclesias- 
tical shells of what were once Christ's witnesses to the 
world, might also have been foreseen. Certainly this 
principle of consolidation is already operating potently 
in the religious sphere. This is apparent in many 
quarters ; and men are everywhere dreaming a dream 
inspired by the world's activities, to wit, the dream of 



A RELIGIOUS "TRUST" 17 

a great ecclesiastical federation, based upon principles 
so accommodating that " all who dwell upon the earth " 
can find a congenial place there. Only those " that dwell 
in heaven " would find themselves out of place in it. 

But what man would ever have dared to predict that 
the business federation and the ecclesiastical federation 
would coalesce into one system, and that the outcome 
of these intense religious and industrial activities would 
be a gigantic churchified Trust ? 

Yet such is the picture clearly outlined upon the 
sacred page of inspiration ; and those who have under- 
standing of the oracles of God, and also, like the men 
of Issachar, have a knowledge of the times, may plainly 
see, amid all the confusion of current events, the 
outline of this ecclesiastical monstrosity coming into 
view, and gradually taking definite shape. 

And one thing more the prophecy clearly and 
pointedly indicates, namely, that the central principle 
of this system is to be the supremacy of Man man 
exalted to the place of God, enthroned upon the 
pinnacle of his own achievements, and saying exultingly, 
" What hath Man wrought ! " Count the number, for 
it is the number of MAN. 

Such, in general at least, will be the nature of the 
coming man, the last and greatest of the magnates, 
and of the religio-commercial syndicate over which he 
shall preside. That these coming things are to arrive 



18 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

along the direct line of any one of the movements 
of to-day is unlikely. These movements are severally 
undergoing great change of form. Some may dis- 
integrate and disappear altogether ; some may collide 
with and be shattered by opposing forces; and still 
others may coalesce ; so that it cannot be said that 
this or the other movement will finally prevail. The 
precise manner, however, in which the result is to be 
reached is a mere matter of detail. The important 
things to be noted are (1): that the essential features 
and principles of the last great system, which is to 
be the outcome of human achievement, are clearly 
described in the Word of God ; and (2), that even a 
casual scrutiny of the mighty movements of to-day 
reveals that the very features and principles described 
in Scripture are the dominating ideals of modern 
thought. However much change may occur in the 
forms and names of the movements now in progress, the 
prominent ideals and features which they possess in com- 
mon will undoubtedly persist, and will assume ever more 
and more definite shapes ; and these will constitute the 
basic principles of the new social order which is to sup- 
plant that which is now breaking up before our eyes. 

It is, therefore, of the very highest importance that 
attention be called to the presence, in the great 
movements of modern thought and action, of those 
peculiar features which, according to the sure word 
of prophecy, should characterise the culminating 
system of the era of industrialism. 



A TANGLE OF INTRICACIES 19 

HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND THEIR TWO 
MAIN FIELDS OF OPERATION 

Having now in mind these prophetic outlines, which 
present to our view the chief distinguishing marks of 
the coming Man and of the religio-commercial system 
of which he will be the directing head, we are in a 
position to inquire whether at the present time there 
is transpiring in the world of men and affairs anything 
which, when examined in the light of Scripture, gives 
reason to suppose that the coming of these predicted 
things is close at hand. 

In seeking an answer to this question, we will first 
take a very general survey of the fields of human 
activity ; and then proceed to scrutinize more closely 
the most conspicuous of the movements taking place 
therein. It will be expedient to proceed in this 
methodical way, for the reason that very few people, in 
these restless days, have either the leisure or the capacity 
for taking deliberate notice of, and paying close and 
sustained attention to, what is going on around them. 
When one for the first time tries to picture to himself 
the general state of our complicated social system, with 
its commercial, political, economic, religious, pleasure- 
supplying, and other aspects, the effect is likely to be 
mental bewilderment. The world appears to be an 
immense tangle of intricacies, a scene of wild con- 
fusion, disorderly, purposeless, futile. One needs, 
therefore, to get at the outset a general idea of the 



20 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

leading motives and purposes which actuate society, in 
order thereby to identify such movements of thought 
and action as have apparently a definite character and 
direction, and which are attracting the attention and 
sympathies of considerable numbers of people. 

The first thing which impresses an observer of 
modern social conditions is the magnitude of the 
industrial forces that are everywhere at work. In 
former times the bulk of the world's work was per- 
formed by the energies of human beings and beasts of 
burden ; but in our era men have learned how to 
control, and to harness to the chariot of industrial 
progress, some of the great natural forces, such as the 
mighty energies stored away centuries ago in the vast 
coal-beds of the earth, which are now being released 
and utilized in the forms of steam and electricity. In 
order to get the significance of this phase of human 
enterprise, one must pause to remember that the 
utilization of the so-called " forces of nature " is 
practically a new thing. It is distinctly a modern 
achievement. The rapidity and extent of the develop- 
ment of this remarkable phase of commercial activity 
may be inferred from the fact that whereas, in 1870, 
there were utilized in the manufactories of the United 
States about two million horse-power, that amount 
increased in the succeeding years to such an extent 
that, by the census of 1900, the figures are given as 
eleven million horse-power. This represents a gain in 



TWO SPHERES OF ACTIVITY 21 

thirty years of 550 per cent. Already this new factor 
in human affairs has wrought profound social changes ; 
and the ultimate developments from this and other 
modern conditions are hastening on. 

For convenience in pursuing our inquiry, we may 
divide the entire sphere of human activities into two 
great sections or divisions ; and these may be designated 
respectively (1) The Economic Field, and (2) The 
Spiritual or Religious Field. 

There are two sides to the nature of man, namely, 
his material side, and his spiritual side. Everything 
that is done or produced with a view to meeting the 
manifold material wants and desires of the modern 
man belongs to the Economic division of social 
activity. 

On the other hand, all that tends to minister to the 
spiritual side of man, or to respond in any way to 
the religious instincts or promptings of his nature, 
belongs to the Religious division or field of social 
activity. 

In each of these fields there are now in progress 
movements strong and swift, and which are sufficiently 
well defined as to their main features and purposes to 
admit of a satisfactory examination. 

It should be stated, in order to prevent any possible 
misunderstanding, that by " religion " the writer does 
not mean " Christianity." To speak of Christianity as 
a religion is to invite or suggest a comparison with the 
great religions of the world. There can be no such 



22 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

comparison. There is nothing but contrast between 
them. Christianity is not called a religion in the New 
Testament. It is spoken of as "The Way." The 
world was full of religion before Christianity came into 
it in the Person of the incarnate Son of God ; and it 
will be full of religion after Christianity has been 
taken out of it. The name "Christianity" may 
indeed remain, as even now it is applied to systems 
whence every doctrine that is vital to Christianity has 
been discarded ; but the substance will have dis- 
appeared utterly. "When the Son of Man cometh, 
shall He find the faith on the earth?" He will 
find much religion there ; but His coming will end it. 

THE ECONOMIC FIELD 

Notwithstanding the bewildering confusion presented 
by the surface of human affairs, it is safe to say that, 
in a general way, the great physical energies exerted 
or directed by human beings are employed at the 
present time mainly in the PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 
OF COMMODITIES ; and that the individual aim of those so 
engaged is to procure, each for himself, the largest 
possible proportion of the commodities (or " wealth ") 
produced by the aggregate social effort. 

Back of all this tremendous expenditure of energy, 
though many are quite unconscious of it, is the effort 
of collective humanity to better its condition, and to 
overcome the many and mysterious things that are 
adverse to its well-being, contentment, and happiness. 



A DEEP-ROOTED IDEA 23 

In this Economic field should properly be included 
all the governmental and political doings of mankind, 
since governments now exist for the main purpose 
of serving and protecting business interests. The 
criterion by which the merit of e~:ery political measure 
is tested is the effect it is likely to have on " business. 1 ' 
Nothing is more sacred in this day than business, 
which is equivalent to saying that business is becoming 
a matter of religious concern. 

The controlling idea of the hour is that improve- 
ment to humanity is to come through increased 
material prosperity, and that money (or wealth) is the 
real power by means of which mankind is to be 
delivered out of all its troubles and miseries. This 
idea has become deeply seated in human consciousness, 
and along with it has come an abiding confidence in 
the inherent ability of man to accomplish eventuaUy 
his own deliverance. There is a well-nigh universal 
notion pervading all human Society that everybody 
would be contented and happy, and that the evils 
which beset mankind would be eliminated, if all mei? 
were plentifully supplied with things, 

Thus it comes to pass that human energies are being 
more and more concentrated upon the multiplication, 
diversification, and distribution of manufactured articles ; 
and thus it comes also that, in aid of this undertak- 
ing, human ingenuity has called into existence many and 
great machines, to which the forces of nature, so far as 
men have been able to master them, have been harnessed. 



24 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

THE CAUSE OF THE ILLS OF HUMANITY, 
WHERE LOCATED 

But at this point there arises a question of funda- 
mental importance, namely, What is the location of 
the cause of human miseries ? Is it in man's sur- 
roundings, or in man himself? 

The importance of this question is obvious, since a 
mistake in locating the cause of human miseries will 
foredoom to failure all measures, however energetic, 
that are taken with a view to removing them. Indeed, 
such misdirected efforts could only have the effect of 
making matters worse. In respect, therefore, to the 
permanent betterment of mankind, everything depends 
upon accurate knowledge of the source and location 
of the evils that beset humanity. The evils themselves 
are undeniable ; but there are current among men two 
radically different explanations of their source. The 
Bible declares that the cause of the ills of humanity is 
in man himself, and that all the evils that beset him 
are the necessary results of corrupted human nature. 
But the firm belief of the natural man is that the 
source of those evils is in man's surroundings, and 
that if man's surroundings or " environment "" be 
improved, man himself will automatically improve. 
According to this view of the matter, the ideal environ- 
ment, if produced, will spontaneously produce the ideal 
humanity. All human schemes of betterment are 
based squarely upon this theory ; and if the latter be 



THE PROBLEM OF EVIL 25 

false, the end of all these great schemes is easily 
foretold. 

This view of the problem of humanity (and it is the 
prevailing view) may be thus stated : Man is the unfor- 
tunate victim of his evil environment. Hence he should 
devote his energies to the improvement of his environ- 
ment, and, when that shall have been accomplished, 
the environment will, in turn, improve the man. 

Thus mankind is working with all its might upon 
the theory that, while man cannot improve his own 
nature, he can improve his environment ; and that the 
improved environment, which man is undertaking to 
produce, will automatically do for him what he cannot 
do for himself. Thus it is assumed that man, who did 
not make himself, and cannot change his own nature, 
is nevertheless able to make gods (whether they be 
called "environment" or "Baal" is a mere detail), 
which shall have both the will and the power to do 
for him what he is powerless to do for himself. 

A further element of this popular doctrine is that 
the desired environment, which is to abolish the ills 
of humanity, is to be attained by the increase of wealth 
to such a point, and by its distribution in such just 
proportion, that everybody shall be raised and kept 
above the level of want and anxiety, and shall be 
insured the enjoyment of lifelong happiness and con- 
tentment. Thus in the last analysis of this doctrine 
it is found that money is to be the real agent of 
deliverance. 
3 



26 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

Stimulated by this faith in himself, and excited to 
a state of feverish activity by the marvellous achieve- 
ments of " Science," man's inventive genius has brought 
into existence an amazing variety of products ; and 
the natural forces, which he is now able in some degree 
to manage, permit the manufacture of these various 
products in practically unlimited quantities. Indeed, 
the note of warning, telling that the limit in this 
direction has been practically reached, comes with 
increasing frequency and insistence in the form of 
periods of " OVER-PRODUCTION." This is a very apt and 
significant expression, and is charged with solemn but 
unheeded warning. Its significance consists in the 
information it conveys, that production has already 
gone beyond the aggregate power of the community 
to consume what is produced, and yet the expected 
deliverance from evil is as remote as ever. 

Man takes to himself all credit for this prodigious 
multiplication of products. He freely appropriates 
to his use what he is pleased to call the " materials and 
forces of nature," with no thought of Him Who 
endowed those materials and forces with their marvel- 
lous properties and powers. Indeed, a conspicuous 
feature of this delirium and intoxication of industrialism 
is the idea that " man " (as we are told) " is coming at 
last to the realization of his divinity." Mankind is 
" coming to feel that it does not need to be divine by 
proxy any longer." l 

1 Man the Social Creator, by H. D. Lloyd. 



PROBLEMS OF GOVERNMENTS 



AIDS TO INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, AND 
SOME OF ITS RESULTS 

From every possible source man is borrowing, to 
aid his career of industrial development. " Science," 
which once concerned itself mainly with the discovery 
and classification of such information as could be 
obtained by diligent study of the accessible universe, 
has now become intensely " practical." Pure science 
is held in little estimation, and its rewards are scanty 
indeed. The designation "scientific man" is now 
applied less frequently to one who studies natural 
substances and operations than to the one who devises 
new processes and appliances. The kind of science 
that is in demand, and is eagerly sought after, is that 
which can be turned into money. It is "applied 
science " that is now held in high esteem ; for that 
which does not contribute to the increase of wealth, or 
to the pleasure or comfort of the man of earth, receives 
slight consideration in this intensely practical age. 

Governments, moreover, are maintained and ad- 
ministered mainly for the promotion and protection of 
business interests. The problems of government at the 
present time are economic problems. They have to 
do with revenue, taxation, the regulation of industrial 
operations, transportation, freight-rates, corporate 
powers, tariffs, commercial treaties, labour questions, 
foreign markets, etc. The vast armaments, which are 



28 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

maintained at enormous cost by the several "world- 
powers" that loving "family of nations'" exist for 
the purpose of guarding and keeping open the sacred 
" channels of trade," and of protecting and enlarging 
the respective national "spheres of influence." The 
burden of these increasing armaments, and of the 
enormous national debts which they entail, together 
with the consequent increase of taxation, are the cause 
of protests which are uttered with more and more 
vigour by those upon whom those burdens press with 
the greatest severity. Every nation on earth is 
increasingly feeling this strain. 

Thus does the organized pursuit of wealth, whose 
supposed mission is to abolish the poverty and distress 
of the great mass of humanity, actually tend to 
augment those very ills ; and thus, among the products 
of industrialism, those that are the most conspicuous are 
the agents of its own destruction. For these great 
armaments will one day be put to their intended use, 
and these thousands of tons of "high explosives" will 
some day explode with a great explosion. 

It is a strange thing indeed, and a forcible illustra- 
tion of the futility of all human enterprises, that, in 
our existing scientific civilization, which has united 
widely separated communities in a complicated 
economic system whose existence depends on the 
maintainance of peace, the arts and engines of icar have 
progressed farther than all other arts and industries. 
Manifestly, if peace is to come to earth through change 



PREPARATIONS FOR WAR 29 

in man's environment, instead of through change in man 
himself, it will never come. Even while man speaks 
most loudly of peace he prepares most actively for war. 
The very first use of the latest of man's achievements, 
the air-ship, is a military use. As an agent of destruc- 
tion it will undoubtedly make a notable contribution 
to the perils of these " perilous times." 1 

One other conspicuous mark of the era of indus- 
trialism has already been referred to incidentally, and 
will call for more extended consideration hereafter. 
We have in mind those industrial convulsions or 
"panics," marked by a sudden and mysterious arrest 
of the machinery of production, followed by a pro- 
tracted period of "business depression." These 
phenomena, which recur with increasing frequency 
and violence, and which are a new thing (the earliest 
occurrence being less than a century ago), are apparently 
an inseparable incident of the existing economic system. 
The wise men who advocate and defend that system 

1 In a notable address delivered June 5, 1909, before the 
Press Conference, Lord Rosebery spoke of the hush pre- 
valent in Europe " a hush in which you might almost hear 
a leaf fall to the ground," and of the entire absence from 
the atmosphere of international politics of any of the 
questions which ordinarily lead to war. " Yet/' said this 
prominent statesman, "combined with this total absence of 
all questions of friction, there never rvas in the history of 
the world so threatening and so overpowering a preparation 
for war." 



30 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

are utterly unable to offer any explanation, or any 
preventive, of their occurrence. These periods of 
business depression, or " hard times " as they are 
expressively called, produce fear and anxiety among 
all classes of society, and spread unspeakable misery, 
suffering, and destitution among the toiling masses. 
Owing to these and other incidents the pressure of 
business life has become so great, and the strain of its 
increasing complexities and surprises so enormous, that 
few men can long endure it. 

Here again is a conspicuous product of industrialism 
that menaces the present career of humanity, and that 
serves further to exhibit the great instability of the 
present social order, and which, in the opinion of many 
judicious observers, must inevitably, and at no distant 
day, bring about a catastrophe such as humanity has 
never yet experienced. 

In view of all these things, it is very pertinent indeed 
to inquire as to the direction which the great indus- 
trial movement of our day is taking, and to ask 
what will be its final outcome. Many are asking 
that question, and it is well worth while to seek an 
answer to it. 



THE RELIGIOUS FIELD, GREAT CHANGES 
NOW IN PROGRESS 

It has been remarked that man is by nature a 
religious animal, and this is a truthful characterization ; 



RELIGION NOT CHRISTIANITY 31 

that is to say, man as a rule believes in the existence 
of unseen powers greater than his own, and in the 
existence of some relation between those powers and 
himself. 

Let it be clearly understood that by " religion " we 
do not mean Christianity, and that by a "religious 
man " we do not mean a Christian. The difference 
between a religious man and a Christian is, that the 
religious man is such by his natural birth, whereas the 
Christian becomes such by new birth, or re-generation. 
There are many religious systems and religious move- 
ments at the present day which have the name and form 
of Christianity, but which nevertheless deny every 
essential item of " the doctrine of Christ " (2 John 9). 
With these we have mainly to do in the present 
inquiry, since they are properly religious " move- 
ments." On the other hand, " the doctrine of Christ," 
that is to say, the body of doctrine given to the 
world by Christ and His apostles, and "once for all 
delivered unto the saints" (Jude 3), has not under- 
gone any change during the eighteen centuries since 
the last of the apostles passed away. Therefore 
Christianity could not be a " movement " in the 
sense here used. 

In the sphere of religion there are mighty move- 
ments in progress at the present time, movements 
which are drawing with them, or are influencing in 
some degree, great multitudes of men and women. In 
all parts of the world, and among all the great historic 



32 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

and ethnic religions, there is, at the present day, unusual 
activity and change; and the changes affect, not 
merely the surface forms and theological details, but 
the very foundations themselves. 

Dr. Rodolphe Broda, after a very complete survey 
of the entire religious field, published in the Inter- 
national for March 1908, an article entitled "A 
Review of the World's Progress, 11 of which the follow- 
ing is the opening paragraph : 

" If we compare the successive periods of human 
civilization with a view to discussing the distin- 
guishing characteristics of each, we shall find 
that one of the most significant features of our 
own times is the religious crisis through which 
all the civilized races are now simultaneously 
passing." 

This conclusion is based upon reports, published in 
the same periodical, from correspondents in every part 
of the civilized world, and also from Japan, China, India, 
Turkey, and elsewhere. These reports show astonishing 
religious changes, even in countries where religious 
conditions have remained practically unchanged for 
many centuries. These changes affect not only 
Christendom, but also Islamism, Buddhism, Brahminism, 
Judaism, and even Agnosticism. " Never before in 
the history of mankind, 1 ' says Dr. Broda, "have the 
forces of religion suffered so great a convulsion " ; and, 
descending to particulars, he declares that " the great 
world-crisis is reproduced in many individual souls, and 



A GREAT SPIRITUAL CRISIS 33 

these the choicest souls of the community." This 
observer asks, as any one naturally would ask when 
confronted by facts so startling, " What is the mean- 
ing of this new phenomenon ? What are the causes 
at work behind it ? " 

We are not concerned at this point with the 
explanations suggested by Dr. Broda. These will be 
considered later on ; but it is pertinent here to 
note that he thinks " the great changes in the economic 
condition of the people have had great influence in this 
respect," thus recognizing the influence of industrialism 
upon religious thought. 

In another important volume of the day, 1 the 
writers, speaking only of the nominally Christian lands, 
say : 

"A great spiritual crisis, which did not begin 
to-day, but has to-day reached its culminating 
intensity, troubles all the religious bodies of 
Europe Catholicism, Lutheranism, Anglican- 
ism." 

We reserve the details of these great and world-wide 
religious movements for consideration later on, and 
would here merely note the undeniable fact that there 
are everywhere in progress religious changes of an 
unprecedented nature and on an unprecedented scale. 
Again we would ask the pertinent question, In what 
direction are these great currents of religious opinion 
setting, and what will be their final outcome ? 
1 The Programme of Modernism. 



34 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

THE RELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC AND 
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS 

But at this point another question arises, namely, 
Have the industrial movements of the day any relation 
to, and anything in common with, the co-temporaneous 
religious movements ? Are these movements converg- 
ing ? and if so, in what sort of a system or social 
order are they likely to eventuate ? This question is 
one of thrilling interest and of vital importance to 
mankind. 

If we were to interrogate those who are prominently 
identified with these great movements, they would, for 
the most part, assure us that these mighty currents of 
thought and action are carrying humanity forward to 
conditions vastly better and happier than have ever yet 
been experienced during its long voyage across the ocean 
of time. The industrial leaders generally assure us of 
a coming period of abounding and universal prosperity ; 
and the religious leaders and prophets predict the 
happiest consequences as sure to result from the fact that 
religious men are everywhere laying aside old prejudices 
and narrow theological ideas, ideas which were imposed 
upon mankind in the days when the human reason was 
shackled and the Bible was held to be Divine and 
authoritative, but which are offensive to, and have 
been wholly rejected by, the modern mind. To such 
persons the meaning of these mighty religious move- 



MONOPOLY DISPLACING COMPETITION 35 

ments is that mankind, in the exercise of its new-found 
intellectual freedom, is sweeping rapidly forward to a 
great unification or brotherhood, which shall embrace 
and blend all shades of religious opinion into one 
harmonious system. This is the vision which many 
prophets of the day are beholding with rapt attention, 
and are describing with glowing words. 

FEATURES COMMON TO THE TWO SETS 
OF MOVEMENTS 

The industrial movements and the religious move- 
ments, when scrutinized closely, are seen to have 
certain conspicuous features in common, however 
different the movements themselves may be in name 
and form. Some of these prominent features are the 
following : 

1. A Common Ideal A Great Consolidation. 

In both the economic and religious fields of human 
activity the prominent ideal is CONSOLIDATION, and the 
controlling impulse is to combine interests and enter- 
prises wherever competition has hitherto existed and 
its harmful results have been experienced. Under the 
transforming influence of this ideal and this impulse, 
the era of fierce and wasteful COMPETITION is rapidly 
giving way to one of MONOPOLY. 

Mr. Alexander Graham Bell, the distinguished 
inventor of the electric telephone, says : " We have 



36 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

arrived at a critical point in our history. Competition 
as an element in business is going out, and monopolies, 
which are opposed to competition, are coming in." J 

In the economic field the general method whereby 
this result is being accomplished is the merging of 
several small concerns engaged in the same industry 
into a single large one, and the absorption by the 
large concerns of smaller ones ; but the failure and 
disappearance of small industries, without being either 
merged or absorbed, also contributes largely to the 
same end. Competition is thus in course of being 
eliminated, and human society is advancing rapidly, 
in its industrial career, towards the formation of a 
single vast system, a gigantic syndicate, a monstrous 
merger, monopoly, or "trust,"" which shall be world- 
wide in its sphere of operations, and which shall 
control the production, distribution, and sale of ALL 
commodities. 

Whether or not we are prepared to believe that such 
a system will ever be established on earth (and most 
probably the effort to establish it will encounter great 
and perhaps even violent resistance), it is at least an 
undeniable fact that the tremendous industrial develop- 
ments of our times are heading straight in that direction. 
The effort of our captains of industry, in every depart- 
ment of the manufacture, transportation, and selling 
of merchandise, is to substitute for the many concerns 
1 World's Work for March 1909- 



CONSOLIDATION A RELIGIOUS IDEAL 37 

which at one time competed fiercely and destructively 
therein, a single concern or monopoly, which shall 
make, transport, or sell without competition, and 
which shall hence " control " the particular operation, 
or set of operations, in which it is engaged. Indeed, 
this consolidation of economic interests does not stop 
when it has succeeded in uniting a number of 
enterprises once competing in a particular line of 
industry ; but it goes on thence to the grouping 
together of industries not naturally related. The 
existence of such " Industrial Groups " of unrelated 
industries is one of the strange phenomena of our 
day ; and their significance in relation to the ultimate 
formation of an all-embracing industrial system is 
very apparent. 

This same ideal of Consolidation pervades the 
atmosphere of the great religious organizations. 
Indeed, the modern world of business has to a large 
extent imposed its standards, ideals, and aspirations 
upon the professing Church, and this process has 
been going on unobtrusively for some time past. 
Now, however, it is very conspicuous in its workings. 
The " Modernists " speak openly of the " ideals which 
govern the activity of THE WORLD to-day, and which 
are Christian in substance." Thus, in the very last 
place where we would expect to find it (that is, in 
the conservative sphere of Romanism), there is in 
progress an organized movement whose leaders 



38 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

openly avow its purpose to be to master the aspira- 
tions, ideals, and language of "the modern world, 
and to effect the reconciliation of the old catholic 
tradition therewith " ; and who say of their inspiring 
motives, "We have come to dream of a GREAT 
UNIFICATION."" 

Dr. Broda gives it as the conclusion of his own 
extensive review of the entire situation, that while 
the new religious movements will take different forms 
according to the diverse needs of the various peoples, 
the latter will, however 

" more and more come to see that their lines 
of development run parallel, and be therefore 
induced to federate themselves into ever greater 
and greater unions, until at last the time must 
come when a single world-federation of religion^ 
the CHURCH OF MAN, will rise out of the ruins 
of the ancient faiths, when the great religious 
crises of the world will be at an end, and the 
strife between the logical necessity of the modern 
scientific world-concept and the psychic necessity 
of religion will be solved in the ultimate har- 
monization of both." 

In the religious field we may also clearly see the 
operation of the principle of combining or merging 
smaller into larger aggregates, although matters have 
not advanced so far in this direction in the religious 
as in the commercial field. Religious bodies are not 



RELIGIOUS CONSOLIDATIONS 39 

so easily handled as industrial concerns ; but precisely 
for that reason the wide-spread activity of the principle 
of confederation among religious societies is the more 
significant. 

One evidence of the active and effective operation 
in the religious field of the principle of consolidation 
is found in the frequency with which one encounters 
newspaper items like the following : 

" Church Union in Canada. It is now pretty certain 
that every obstacle to the organic union of Congrega- 
tional, Presbyterian, and Methodist bodies in Canada 
has been removed," etc. 

Dr. Broda comments with evident satisfaction upon 
the fourth biennial session of the " International 
Council of the Unitarians and other Liberal Thinkers 
a.nd Workers " lately held at Boston. Of it he 
says : 

" This Council must be ranked among the great 
undertakings of our day that aim at broadening 
the outlook of nations and that tend to bring 
about a new fellowship of nations. At this 
Boston session were assembled representatives of 
Judaism, Christianity, Mohammedanism, and the 
Brahma-Somaj ; representatives also of sixteen 
different nationalities and members of thirty- 
three different denominations, besides fifty-seven 
distinct religious associations other than individual 
Churches, while nearly sixteen hundred persons 



40 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

enrolled themselves as members of this Boston 
Conference." 

But not only is there at the present time incessant 
agitation for the merging of various religious organiza- 
tions or sects : a more surprising thing is in progress, 
namely, the " Union between Free-thinkers and Liberal 
Christians," commented upon by Dr. Broda, and 
which his correspondent regards as one of the "first 
evolutionary stages of a great religion of love and 
progress in which all nations will unite." This 
clearly portends the union of all religious forces 
opposed to true Christianity. 

The reconciliation of such extremes as religion and 
"free-thought" is spoken of by other students of 
current events. Thus Mr. Paul Sabatier, in his recent 
lectures on Modernism (The "Jowett Lectures, 
1908 "), says : 

" Having reconciled science and faith, Modern- 
ism is now not far from coming to terms with 
Free-thought." 

Mr. Sabatier says he does not mean this as an 
admission of the identity of Modernism with unbelief, 
but quite the contrary ; and that he is speaking of 
"free-thought in which there is at once thought and 
freedom, and not of men or groups of men who con- 
found free- thought with anti-religious dogmatism." 

Speaking of " free- thought " in this sense, he goes 
on to show the extraordinary phenomenon of an 



RELIGIOUS FREE-THINKERS 41 

awakening of religious sentiments and emotions among 
free-thinkers. In this connection he says : 

"Both in Italy and in France some of the 
most influential leaders of free-thought have 
publicly repudiated all connection with anti- 
religious propaganda. . . . These pre-occupations 
have even given rise to a new title 'religious 
free-thought.' The movement is no longer a 
mere pious wish. It has become a reality, and 
all through this winter gatherings have been 
held in Paris at which free-thinkers as repre- 
sentative as Buisson, Pecaut, and Seailles, and 
Christians as well known as Pere Hyacinthe 
Loyson, Charles Wagner, and Wilfred Monod, 
have met together and spoken in succession." 
Thus the tendency of the great religious activity 
of our times is declared by sympathetic onlookers to 
be the making of such modifications in "religion" 
as to render it thoroughly acceptable to representa- 
tive " free-thinkers." 

These instances will afford sufficient indications, for 
preliminary purposes, of the extent to which the 
principle of Consolidation is working in both the 
economic and the religious departments of human 
affairs. 

2. A Common Basis Faith in the Powers of Man. 
The faith of the world is based on Man, the 
fundamental principle of that faith being that Man 
4 



42 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

possesses the inherent power to lift himself out of 
all evil conditions, and to overcome all existing 
hindrances to his progress. On the other hand, a 
fundamental proposition of Christian doctrine is that 
man is impotent and untrustworthy. " Put not your 
trust in princes " (Ps. cxlvi. 3). " Cursed be the man 
that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm " 
(Jer. xvii. 5). It is impossible to conceive of a 
religious system more opposed to Christianity than one 
whose main teaching is that man may and must put 
his trust in his own inherent power and goodness. 
It is, however, a settled article in the creed of the 
world, and of the world's religions of whatever name, 
that Man is now in process of developing and of putting 
into exercise his own inherent powers (which have in 
large part been latent hitherto), and is, by means 
thereof, progressing rapidly towards ideal social condi- 
tions. 

Hence the idea that stands out prominently upon 
the surface of the thought of to-day is confidence in 
Man. This is not individual self-confidence, which 
is quite a different thing. It is a collective self- 
confidence. The masses are being diligently schooled 
by a variety of teachers, and for widely varying 
purposes, to think of Humanity as an entity. In 
discussing questions of the hour, much is made 
of the interests, prospects, welfare, and progress of 
"Society" rather than of individuals, of mankind 



THE "SOLIDARITY OF MAN' 1 43 

rather than of men and women. This, of course, is 
the natural outgrowth of the idea or principle of 
Federation, which has already been mentioned. But 
what we wish, at this point, specially to notice is 
that people are looking to Man himself, to his own 
achievements, his ingenuity and inventive abilities, 
his industry and daring, and whatever other powers 
he is supposed to possess, whether developed or un- 
developed, for the accomplishment of all the good 
that is in view for collective humanity. 

This confidence in Man, generated in the stirring 
activities of the industrial field, has now been raptur- 
ously embraced by the leaders of religious thought, 
and has, in fact, become the basic principle of all the 
current religious movements, as well as of the lesser 
religious novelties of the hour. As recently expressed 
by a New York clergyman 

" We begin to realize as never before the 
great fact of the Solidarity of Man. . . . To 
be alive now and witness this mighty movement 
of Men, which must eventuate in a sense of real 
abiding Brotherhood, is a blessing for which to 
be profoundly grateful. 1 ' 

The notion that the individual man can elevate 
himself by tugging at his boot-straps has long been 
thoroughly discredited in the realm of physics. It 
has, however, passed over to the domain of religion, 
and is to be found at the core of the religious and 



44 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

ethical novelties of the day, and in all the popular 
schemes for the betterment and " uplift " of humanity. 
Man is now throwing tremendous energies into the 
absorbing but futile endeavour to elevate himself above 
the plane of evil and misery, and is doing it with 
immense enthusiasm and unwavering faith in the ulti- 
mate success of the attempt. 

The propagation of the idea of the "Solidarity 
of Man," or the essential identity of the interests 
of all mankind, has two consequences which should be 
noted. First, it tends to obliterate the important 
teaching of Scripture that instead of one united 
humanity having a common destiny, there are two great 
sections of humanity, one composed of those who have 
life through faith in the Son of God, and the other 
of those who have not life; one embracing the 
children of God and the other the children of wrath. 

Second, it tends to obscure or wholly cover up the 
absolute necessity of individual salvation. This it does 
by creating the impression that salvation is a collective 
or social affair, to be accomplished not for each indi- 
vidual man, but for the entire human race as an entity. 

From these considerations it is easy to see that the 
current doctrines of the brotherhood of man are trace- 
able to the " spirit of error," and to see also the deadly 
consequences of the propagation of such doctrines. 

3. A Common Religious Principle Worship of Man. 

This is, practically, a re-statement of the fact that 



there exists at the present time a wide-spread faith in 
collective Man. But it is important to have distinctly 
before our minds the fact that it is the inevitable 
tendency of this trust in Man to take a religious form, 
leading on eventually to " Humanism," or the worship 
of Man, which, as prophecy foretells, is the ultimate 
form which false religion is to assume. Few are aware 
of the immense progress that has already been made 
towards the establishment of Humanism as a distinctive 
religious system. It calls for an exercise of " wisdom " 
and for much spiritual " understanding," to count the 
number of the beast; but whenever the count is 
properly made the number of his name is found to 
be " the number of Man." 

In many quarters where the name and forms of 
Christianity are still retained, the substance of true 
Christianity (" the doctrine of Christ ") has been already 
displaced by the principles of Humanism ; while in the 
great socialistic movement of the day, which is menac- 
ing the existing economic order of society, Humanism 
is distinctly avowed as the coming universal religion 
of mankind. 1 

1 The phrase "the Religion of Humanity" seems to 
have been first used by Thomas Paine, who perceived and 
vigorously proclaimed the religious bearing of the doctrine 
of Locke that the people are the sole source of power, 
the true masters, and that no one may make any law 
" except by their consent, or by authority derived from 



46 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

Many earnest persons who are to-day advocating 
more or less of the industrial principles of Socialism 
are at the same time holding on (nominally at least) 
to the main doctrines of Christianity. But it will be 
readily seen that these persons as Christians are 
apathetic, while as Socialists they are full of propagat- 
ing zeal. The converts they make are converts to 
Socialism, not to Christ; and the places of these 
propagandists, when vacant, will be acceptably filled, 
and all they are now doing will be just as well done, 
by others who make no profession at all of Christianity. 
It is quite compatible with much of what is taught in 
the churches to-day, to do homage to Man himself as 
his own deliverer. 

Dr. Broda has stated the logical outcome of the 
religious drift of the day in predicting that it will 
result in "a single world-federation of religion, the 
CHURCH OF MAN." But the Apostle John recorded 
the same prediction eighteen centuries ago. 

We will speak hereafter, and in some detail, of 
the amazing progress which the idea of the divinity of 
humanity has already made in modern thought, and 
particularly in religious bodies once regarded as 
thoroughly orthodox and evangelical. 

them." Compte afterwards adopted the expression and 
gave it wide currency. Since his day it has been steadily 
coming into prominence and public favour. (See " The 
Greatest of Pamphleteers/' London Times, June 8, 1909.) 



A FASCINATING CONCEPTION 47 

All our studies of the important movements of the 
present day will tend to confirm the conclusion that 
their most striking and prominent characteristic is the 
pursuit of the ideal of a Consolidation or Federation 
of all human affairs and interests, that is to say, the 
formation of a single organization or body ; and that 
the ideal of all these different movements is the 
same, whether the proposed Unification be called 
"Humanity," "Society," "Man," "Democracy," the 
" Brotherhood of Man," or by some other name. 

The idea of a consolidated humanity is a brilliant 
and fascinating conception. It captures the imagina- 
tion, and is capable of arousing the enthusiasm 
necessary to insure success. To what more worthy 
end could man devote his wonderful powers and 
faculties than to the banishment of all poverty, 
cruelty, selfishness, warfare, and other ills that bring 
miseries upon humanity? And all this, and more, 
may be accomplished through the unification of human 
society, the welding of all human units into one great 
brotherhood, wherein the rights of all individuals 
will be equally sacred and equally the concern of the 
whole system. 

This captivating ideal involves not merely industrial 
unification, but also the harmonization of all religious 
views. Indeed, a universal religion is an absolute 
necessity if the ideal is ever to be realized ; for nothing 
has given rise to more hatred, antagonism, and blood- 



48 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

shed, than conflicting religious views. Religious an- 
tagonisms must be totally eliminated. Hence the 
strong appeals and efforts that are being made for the 
cessation of religious strife, as well as of industrial 
strife. The great thought which is throbbing at this 
moment in the heart of humanity is nothing less than 
the reversal of what took place at Babel, when the 
Lord confounded their language and scattered them 
abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth. 
And when this proposed consolidation of humanity has 
been accomplished, the re-united elements of human 
society will be free to resume the building of the tower 
whose top was to reach unto heaven. 

"SCIENCE" AND THE PRESENT-DAY 
MOVEMENTS 

We have seen that much of the credit for the 
industrial progress of humanity is given to what is 
miscalled " Science." Human " Science " is also ac- 
credited with being a leading factor in the profound 
religious changes which are taking place, and is even 
referred to as one of the new foundations of the 
theologies of to-day. The attitude of the modern 
mind toward " Science " is really a religious attitude, 
deeply reverential and worshipful. This feature of 
modern thought is of great importance, and will be 
considered hereafter. For present purposes a few 



THE "MODERN SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT" 49 

instances will suffice, as showing, in a general way, the 
part attributed to "Science" in the religious move- 
ments of the present time. 

Dr. Broda, in setting forth his view of the causes of 
these movements, says : 

"First place must be given to the discoveries 
of modern science., which, in demolishing the 
legends of the creation of the world and man, 
have also uprooted in the educated mind the faith 
in the Divine inspiration of the books and tradi- 
tions which taught these legends, and which were 
the basis of all the accepted religious beliefs." 
And again : 

"Thus we see from the stock of all the old 
positivist religions (Christianity, Islam, Brahman- 
ism and Buddhism) are springing up new sects, 
which are cultivating the modern scientific 
spirit, modern social and ethical ideas, and 
enthusiastically embracing the evolutionary 
concept of the universe." 

Thus "Science" is set up as the effective cause of 
changes more profound and widespread than those 
resulting from the life and teachings of Christ Himself. 
The Modernists say : 

" We have girt ourselves for the task of bring- 
ing the religious experience of Christianity into 
line with the data of contemporary science and 
philosophy." 



50 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

While at the other extreme Mr. R. J. Campbell 
declares that 

" The New Theology is the religion of Science. 
... It is the recognition that upon the founda- 
tions laid by modern science a vaster and nobler 
fabric of faith is rising than the world has ever 
before known." 

There is a marvellous agreement between all these 
witnesses as to the potent influence exercised by 
"Science" in bringing about the religious upheaval 
which is now in progress ; and since it is apparent that 
man, in worshipping human "Science," is in reality 
worshipping himself, such statements as the foregoing, 
with which the religious literature of the day fairly 
teems, afford a good indication of the progress of 
Humanism. 

The facts noted in these extracts show also that the 
same force which is back of the industrial changes of 
the day, is in like manner affecting the religious 
changes which are progressing simultaneously. This is 
a very remarkable fact indeed, and one that has an 
important bearing upon our main inquiry. 

TWO BODIES NOW IN PROCESS OF 
FORMATION 

It will help in clarifying our view of the confused 
state of modern society, and will aid in fixing the main 



TWO BODIES NOW FORMING 51 

facts in our minds, if we consider that human beings 
are at the present time being gathered into two great 
Bodies. One is the body of Christ (" the Church which 
is His body," Eph. i. 22, 23). The other is the body 
of Antichrist. 

Two great and antagonistic spiritual forces are 
engaged respectively in the formation of these two 
bodies ; namely, the Spirit of God, who is forming the 
Body of Christ ; and Satan, the " spirit of the world " 
(1 Cor. ii. 12), who is forming the body of Antichrist. 

The body which is being formed by the Spirit of 
God is the Church of the living God ; for " by one 
Spirit are we all (that is, all believers) baptized into 
ONE BODY, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether 
we be bond or free " (1 Cor. xii. 13). This body when 
completed will be caught out of the earth to be 
united to Christ, its living Head, as plainly foretold in 
1 Thess. iv. 13-17. 

But the " spirit of the world " is likewise forming a 
body, by gathering together, federating, or unifying, 
the mass of men " who know not God and who obey 
not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ " (2 Thess. i. 8). 
This is the present enterprise of " the spirit that now 
works in the children of disobedience " (Eph. ii. 2). 
The teaching of Scripture that there is a mighty spirit 
concealed beneath the surface of events, and influenc- 
ing all whose thoughts are not brought wholly into 
captivity to the obedience of Christ, furnishes an 



52 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

adequate explanation of the prominence of the same 
ideals and impulses in communities that are remote 
and diverse one from another. Otherwise these start- 
ling facts are inexplicable. 

But Satan cannot work out his plan of forming a 
consolidated humanity according to the method em- 
ployed by the Spirit of God. The Church of God is 
built upon the foundation of Jesus Christ, the Son of 
the Living God (Matt. xvi. 18), crucified for the sin 
of the world, and raised from the dead by the glory 
of the Father. God began the formation of the 
Church, which is the body of Christ, by raising Him 
from among the dead, seating Him at His own right 
hand in the heavenlies, putting all things under His 
feet, and making Him "the Head over all things to 
the church which is His BODY " (Eph. i. 20-23). To 
that living Head those who believe through the preach- 
ing of the gospel are united in a vital and eternal 
union. This is the Divine method by which the true 
and lasting Humanity is being formed. 

Teaching the same truth under the similitude of a 
building, whereof Christ is the Foundation-Stone, the 
apostle Peter says : " To whom coming, as unto a 
living Stone, disallowed (i.e. rejected) indeed of MEN, 
but chosen of God and precious, ye also, as living 
stones, are built up a spiritual house " (1 Pet. ii. 4, 5). 
And the Apostle Paul likewise teaches that believers, 
having been " quickened together with Christ " (thus 



ORGANISM VERSUS ORGANIZATION 53 

becoming what Peter calls "living stones") "are 
built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 
Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone, in 
whom all the building, fitly framed together, groweth 
unto an holy temple in the Lord ; in whom ye also are 
builded together for an habitation of God through the 
Spirit " (Eph. ii. 5, 19-22). 

Thus God is preparing a building for eternity, in 
the preparation of which He makes use of living, that 
is, imperishable material, Christ Jesus, raised from the 
dead, being the Beginning of the new creation of God 
(Col. i. 18 ; Rev. iii. 14). 

But Satan has to work, not with living but with 
dying material ; and he has no living human head to 
which he can attach members by living ties. Satan 
cannot create an organism ; he can only form an organ- 
ization. Hence he is drawing unquickened human 
beings together around the unifying idea of "fra- 
ternity," or "co-operation," or "society," and is 
diligently propagating the belief that, when that great 
organization takes shape, the permanent advantage 
of all mankind will be secured. When this body is 
formed (as it surely will be), then the expected leader 
or head will be brought forth, that " man of destiny," 
" whose coming is according to the working of Satan, 
with all power and signs and wonders of falsehood, and 
in every deceit of unrighteousness in them that perish " 
(2 Thess. ii. 9, 10). 



54 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

Such is religious man. When Christ came into the 
world, manifesting the mind of God and His purposes 
in grace to sinful men, the religious crowd put Him to 
the death reserved for slaves and for the meanest 
criminals. When Antichrist comes with the display of 
his marvellous gifts and supernatural powers, the 
religious crowd will put him at the head of all its 
consolidated interests, and will render to him implicit 
obedience and unstinted admiration. 

Since the fall and death of Adam (who was the 
natural head of the human family), the race of Adam, 
i.e. Humanity, has been headless. God's plan for 
humanity was to give it a competent directing 
intelligence or head, who should not only have united 
all its members in a harmonious family, but also have 
maintained co-operative relations between them. But, 
through loss of the head of the human race, its members 
have been thrown into hopeless disorder and confusion. 
The race, instead of maintaining its solidarity and 
community of interest (the advantages of which are 
obvious), has fallen apart into hostile groups, which 
have maintained a perpetual struggle among them- 
selves. There has been all along a tacit recognition of 
the loss and absence of headship in the many attempts 
of individuals and nations to occupy the vacant place. 

The governmental expedients of humanity, which 
are its substitutes for the lost headship, have already 
deteriorated so far that the final stage of DEMOCRACY 



THE ESSENCE OF DEMOCRACY 55 

has now been reached. Ideal or pure Democracy has 
not yet been attained ; but in every part of the world 
rapid progress in that direction is being made. In 
fact, all the movements which we have in view could 
be interpreted as the progress of mankind towards 
pure Democracy. 

The essence of Democracy is that " the will of the 
people" is supreme. The difficulty of applying this 
as a working principle is due to the lack of facilities 
for obtaining promptly an expression of the will 
of the people. For that purpose the people should 
have one mind and one voice. Thus the ideal social 
state, or pure Democracy, requires a competent 
leader or head, who shall express the will of the people ; 
and the crowning achievement of "the god of this 
world" will be, after having gathered into one vast 
federation practically all the scattered members of 
Adam's race, to furnish that organization with a leader 
or head, endowed with superhuman intelligence, and 
supported by superhuman power. 

Thus a survey of the entire sphere of human activities 
will disclose the important fact that the great move- 
ments of our day, whether economic or religious, are 
all heading directly and rapidly towards the develop- 
ment of a gigantic system, federation, or syndicate 
a great combine which shall control all human 
interests and enterprises, and regulate all human affairs, 



56 

both secular and religious ; and that the dominant idea 
of all these movements is faith in the inherent power 
of Man to overcome and abolish all the evils in himself 
and in his circumstances. 

WHAT THE PRESENT-DAY MOVEMENTS 
LOSE SIGHT OF 

One other preliminary observation should be made. 

The fatal miscalculation of all the great movements 
of the day is that none of them takes any account of 
sin. This omission, of course, vitiates all conclusions, 
and foredooms all these movements to failure. What 
has been aptly said of one of these movements is 
applicable to them all, namely, that they aim " to get 
rid of the consequences of sin in human nature without 
getting rid of sin itself." On the other hand, the 
method of Christ is to " put away sin " (Heb. ix. 26), 
and thus to get rid of its consequences. He came as 
the Lamb of God to bear away " the sin of the world " 
(John i. 29). 

Sin is firmly rooted in human nature. " By one man 
sin entered the world, and death by sin " (Rom. v. 12) ; 
and any scheme of human betterment which fails to 
take account of, and to deal effectively with, that fact, 
is utterly futile. 

The anti-Christian theory, based upon the evolution- 
ary notion taught in the name of modern " science, 1 ' 



THE EFFECTS OF PROSPERITY 57 

namely, that man's evil nature is due to his evil sur- 
roundings, and that if the surroundings be improved 
the man will improve, has been already sufficiently 
tested in human experience to demonstrate its falsity 
to all who care to know the truth in this regard. 
In every " civilized " country there are, and for many 
generations have been, favoured groups of individuals 
who are " surrounded," and have been all their lives, 
with all the favouring influences that wealth can pro- 
cure. So far, however, from having developed ideal 
characters, it is, on the contrary, observable that these 
conditions tend to develop, in those who are most fully 
exposed to their influence, the traits of selfishness, 
extravagance, idleness, immorality, self-indulgence, 
excesses, pride, and the like. Surely, if experience 
teaches anything, it teaches that prosperity and " easy 
circumstances " do not tend to develop much less do 
they automatically produce ideal characters. As a 
means of getting rid of sin and its consequences, 
industrial progress is already a demonstrated failure. 

It is important, in this connection, to have regard to 
the simplest and broadest definition of sin which 
Scripture furnishes, namely, " Sin is lawlessness " 
(1 John iii. 4, R.V.). Sin is that lawless state or 
condition of man consequent upon his departure from 
God's plan and his embarkation upon a career of his 
own choosing. It is the substitution of another will 
" the will of man," or " the will of the people " for 
5 



58 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

that of God, Whose will is " good, acceptable, and 
perfect " (Rom. xii. 2). The resulting state is neces- 
sarily one of disorder, confusion, uncertainty, ignorance, 
and corruption, and an environment abounding in evils, 
violence, accidents, disease, and death. 

If, for example, the germ theory of disease be 
correct, it furnishes an apt illustration of lawlessness. 
According to that theory, diseases are caused by living 
organisms which, having escaped from the control of 
Jaw, have got out of their own proper place, and 
have colonized in human bodies. These living things 
may be not merely harmless, but even beneficent, in 
their proper place; but in a state of sin, that is to 
say of lawlessness, they become displaced, and propagate 
their own species by the destruction of organisms much 
higher in the scale of life. 

Our ordinary experience furnishes abundant examples 
of things which, in then: proper relations to other 
things, are useful and beneficial, but which become 
hurtful and destructive when dislocated or mis- 
applied. 

Nothing, therefore, can be more certain than that 
the results of sin, which is lawlessness, and of which the 
chief result is death, can not be removed except by the 
putting away of sin itself. In no other way can 
man and the world be brought back into harmony 
with God, or be, as the Bible expresses it, " recon- 
ciled to God" (2 Cor. v. 19, Col. i. 20), Who is the 



PUTTING AWAY SIN 59 

Author of law and order, not of confusion (1 Cor. 
xiv. 33). 

This work of putting away sin, breaking the power 
of death, and reconciling the world persons and 
things to God, is the work of Christ on the cross 
(Heb. ii. 14, 15, ix. 26 ; Rom. v. 10 ; 2 Cor. v. 18, 19 ; 
Col. i. 20). " He appeared to PUT AWAY SIN by the 
sacrifice of Himself" . . . "that through death He 
might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, 
the devil." Here is the only plan ever proposed for 
removing sin and death from God's universe. It is 
God's plan, and is therefore effective ; and though it 
does not meet the approbation of the advanced theo- 
logians and religious leaders of the day, the latter have 
not as yet furnished a substitute. God's way of salva- 
tion for humanity has at least this to commend it, that 
it deals directly and by name with the great enemies, 
sin and death, which have exercised dominion over all 
the race of Adam. Man's religions, on the other hand, 
have nothing to say against these mighty foes, and 
disclose no way whereby a single human being can 
escape from their grasp. 

Scripture teaches that " when we were enemies we 
were reconciled to God by the death of His Son" 
(Rom. v. 10); so that we have in Scripture a clear 
statement of God's plan, which He is now carrying 
out, for the deliverance of the world from all lawless- 
ness and its consequences, and for bringing men (by 



60 HUMAN ACTIVITIES OF PRESENT DAY 

nature the enemies of God) into reconciliation with 
Himself. 

Seeing that this was the purpose for which the Son 
of God came into the world, and assumed " the likeness 
of sinful flesh v (Rom. viii. 3), it is a very significant fact 
that the active religious movements of the day are all in 
full agreement among themselves in denying the atone- 
ment made by Christ on the cross, and in practically 
ignoring the presence of sin and death in the world. 

It is also important to note that the expression 
"mystery of iniquity " in 2 Thess. ii. 7 is literally "the 
mystery of lawlessness " (being the identical word used 
in 1 John iii. 4), and that the designation of the coming 
leader in verse 8 is "the Lawless One." Therefore 
the teaching of this passage is that the mystery, which 
was then already working, and which should eventuate 
in the advent of the magnate of the end-time, whose 
coming is to be according to the working of Satan, 
was the MYSTERY OF LAWLESSNESS. This vast, age-long 
development is still, and will be to the end, a 
" mystery " to all who have " not received the love of 
the truth that they might be saved." 

The great Consolidation will therefore be the cul- 
mination of man's career of sin or lawlessness ; and its 
leader will be the consummate product of that career, 
the Man of Sin, or lawlessness. 

Here, then, is another great difference between God's 
plan of deliverance and man's. The former recognizes 



DEFICIENCY OF HUMAN REMEDIES 61 

the presence of sin, provides a remedy for it, and 
begins the great work of deliverance by striking 
directly and effectively at the cause of all human ills. 
This was the mission to earth of the Son of God. He 
is the Lamb of God that beareth away the sin of the 
world. 

On the other hand, man's plan of deliverance from 
evil by the development and systematizing of manu- 
facture and commerce, includes no remedy for sin and 
death. This conspicuous deficiency in the great 
religious and social movements of the day should 
suffice to condemn them in the eyes of all who are not 
spiritually blinded. For, after all, the utmost that 
these reformers, evolutionists, and new theologians 
offer is, the vague promise that the world may, in some 
far-off day, become a comfortable and agreeable place 
for the man of the future to sin and die in. There is 
nothing in all their schemes to meet the need of the man 
of the present, or to heal the sin-wounds of humanity, 
and to get rid of sin and death, at any time, present or 
future. 



SECTION II 

NEW THEOLOGIES 

HAVING taken a general survey of the fields of human 
activity, and having noted the general characteristics 
of the movements progressing therein, we will now 
turn our attention to the more important of the 
religious movements of the day. 

Among the notable products of the activity of 
recent years is a crop of " new theologies " and other 
religious novelties. The presence of these new move- 
ments, and the rapidity with which they are spreading, 
testify unmistakably to the fact that the old religious 
beliefs and systems are unsuited to the temper and 
thought of the present generation of men. Beyond all 
question there is something wrong either with the 
ancient faith or with the modern man. Where the 
latter is the judge and the final authority in such 
matters, he decides without qualification that the 
trouble is with the ancient faith ; and he will listen to, 
and support, only such teachers as make it their study 

to confirm him in this judgment. 

62 



CONDITIONS IN THE LATTER DAYS 63 

But our immediate purpose is not so much to decide 
the merits of the controversy between the modern man 
and the ancient faith, as to note with impartial scrutiny 
the leading characteristics of these new movements, 
and to compare them with the prophetic Scriptures 
cited above. In so doing, our plan will be, not to give 
our own appreciation of those movements, for that 
(however fairly it might be done) would be open to 
question and suspicion ; but to let the leaders and 
accredited mouthpieces of the several movements 
state, in their own words, the essential features of 
each. 

While conducting this examination, we are to keep 
in mind the substance of the predicted condition of 
human affairs at "the time of the end," which is 
briefly : 

1. That an era of great industrial expansion was 
to come. 

2. That this era would culminate in a monstrous 
monopoly, or organization of world-wide scope. 

3. That this coming system should embrace, 
regulate, and control both the secular and the religious 
interests of mankind, being at once commercial and 
ecclesiastical. 

4>. That the basic principle of this new economic and 
social order would be the divinity of humanity. 

5. That this colossal system should be headed, at 
the time of its maximum development, by a man of 



64 NEW THEOLOGIES 

transcendent genius, endowed with superhuman in- 
telligence and abilities, in short by a "Superman." 

We can sufficiently acquaint ourselves with the 
main characteristics of the present religious drift by 
examining the New Theology of Old England and the 
New Theology of New England. 

It is a matter of regret that, in pursuing this 
inquiry, it becomes necessary to mention the names 
of certain men who are prominent in religious circles. 
The writer would much prefer to conduct the dis- 
cussions in an impersonal manner, for his controversy 
is not with individuals, however mischievous their 
teachings, but wholly with the teachings themselves. 
For the former, his only wish is that God may grant 
them " repentance to the acknowledging of the truth ; 
and that they may recover themselves out of the snare 
of the devil " (2 Tim. ii. 25, 26). But as for their 
doctrines, seeing that these are openly and directly 
opposed to all that is vital in " the doctrine of Christ " 
and in " the gospel of God concerning His Son,' 1 the 
writer cannot do otherwise than denounce them as 
among the greatest of all the dangers that now menace 
the welfare of men. 

The reader, therefore, is asked to remember that 
the names of prominent men are mentioned in these 
pages solely because they themselves have publicly 
identified their names with the doctrines which we 
have undertaken to examine. 



EXTRAVAGANCES OF "NEW THEOLOGY" 65 

THE NEW THEOLOGY OF OLD ENGLAND 

The term " New Theology " has become quite 
familiar of late through the very general interest 
aroused by a book published under that name, whose 
author is Rev. R. J. Campbell, pastor of the London 
City Temple. It would seem, however, that much 
more attention has been paid to certain extravagant 
utterances, found here and there in the book, than to 
the leading features of the doctrine set forth therein. 
These occasional extravagant utterances appear to me 
to be the expression rather of the author's exuberant 
disposition, than of his sober thought; and, for that 
reason, we should be misled if we were to take them 
(as many of his critics have done) as stating material 
parts of the doctrine of the New Theology. Very few 
religious leaders, teachers, and theologians would care 
to associate themselves with the extreme statements in 
which Mr. Campbell occasionally indulges. 

On the other hand, Mr. Campbell declares, and 
truthfully, that while he may have been the first to 
formulate the distinctive teachings of the "New 
Theology," those teachings did not originate with him, 
but. on the contrary, are to be found in, and constitute 
the essence of, the forward movements now occurring 
in every part of Christendom. He points out, and it 
cannot be successfully denied, that the same doctrines 
in substance, however named and in whatever terms 



66 NEW THEOLOGIES 

they may be formulated, are flourishing and spreading 
in the Church of Rome, in the Church of England, in 
French Protestantism, in Lutheranism, and in the 
Congregational and other Evangelical Churches of 
England and America. In all these divisions of 
Christendom "the same attitude is being taken by 
many who are not even aware that the name New 
Theology is being applied to it." (p. 13). 

First, let it be noted that the New Theology is 
accurately described as a " movement." It is not 
a systematized body of stable doctrine, but is a 
theology in process of jormation, undergoing constant 
and rapid change in its forms and details, and hence is 
recognizable only by its essential and relatively stable 
features. It is not a platform upon which one might 
find standing ground for his religious conceptions, but 
an inclined plane, down which those who commit them- 
selves to it are rapidly sliding to conclusions whereof 
the leading characteristics may be easily discerned. 

The main feature of the theology propounded by 
Mr. Campbell is a special variety of the doctrine of 
Divine Immanence. Mr. Campbell labours hard (and 
to little purpose) to distinguish his special kind of 
Divine Immanence from other varieties of that 
doctrine ; but this distinction, if it exists, is of no 
real importance. The quotations given below will 
show how thoroughly Mr. Campbell identifies God 
with man, and man with God, leaving between them 



A STRIKING CHARACTERISTIC 67 

no difference that is of any real value or practical 
importance. The essence, then, of the New Theology 
is the Deification of Man. Count the number, and it 
will be found " the number of Man." 

A striking characteristic of the New Theology, as 
presented by Mr. Campbell, is that its doctrines are not 
supported by even the semblance of proof ; and indeed, 
owing to the peculiar character of the system, they do 
not require such support. Those who accept the 
doctrines of Christianity do so (and have always done 
so) for the reason that those doctrines have the support 
of evidence deemed by Christians to be of the highest 
grade of proof, namely, the " testimony of God " given 
in His Word. But the essence of the New Theology is 
that " we know nothing and can know nothing of the 
Infinite Cause whence all things proceed, except as we 
read Him in His universe and in our own souls." In 
other words, we have no Divine revelation. In this 
passage the Bible is set aside by implication ; but, as 
we will see later on, Mr. Campbell in express terms 
repudiates it ; and this, of course, is absolutely necessary 
in order to make place for the distinctive doctrines 
which are now being introduced through various 
channels, including the " New Theology." 

" It is," says Mr. Campbell, " the immanent God 
with whom we have to do " ; and in lieu of proof of 
this fundamental proposition we are told that it is an 
"obvious fact" (p. 5). Of course, if the "fact" be 



68 NEW THEOLOGIES 

" obvious," proof of it would be superfluous. In order 
to ascertain, according to Mr. Campbell, whether or 
not a statement is true, one is always to appeal not 
to the evidence, but to the god within him. " Never 
mind what the Bible says about this or that, if you 
are in search for truth, but trust the voice of God 
within you."" 

It is important to note that Mr. Campbell makes 
many radical doctrinal statements, and makes them 
in the most dogmatic fashion, without the slightest 
attempt to support them by proof. In this, of course, 
he is entirely consistent. It would manifestly be quite 
unnecessary to cumber his pages with evidences of 
the truth of his doctrines, seeing that, according to 
the essential principle of the New Theology, every 
human being has within himself the only and infall- 
ible source and judge of the truth. 

A good illustration of the operation of this funda- 
mental principle is furnished by what Mr. Campbell 
says of the account of the fall of man contained in 
Genesis iii. He tells us that, while the narrative there 
given is a myth, "it does contain a truth, 11 namely, 
that when the "Infinite 11 became the finite creation 
(for remember that God and the created universe are 
one, according to the New Theology) there was " a 
coming dozvn from perfection to imperfection, 11 and this 
coming down of God to become the finite universe 
was " of the nature of a fall."" Thus Mr. Campbell 



69 

sets the author of Genesis right in an important 
particular, telling us that the writer of that ancient 
document was correct in stating that there had been 
a fall, but was in error in saying that it was man who 
fell, the fact being (says Mr. Campbell) that it was 
God who fell. Man, says Mr. Campbell, is not a 
fallen creature, but is, and always has been, a rising 
creature rising steadily to his true level, which is 
Deity. 

We are not now concerned with the stupendous 
blasphemy of this doctrine, but only with the astound- 
ing fact that it is presented for acceptance without any 
semblance whatever of supporting proof. It is assumed 
that man, who professes himself unable to believe his 
own fall, though that event be declared upon the 
authority of Scripture, and though it be confirmed by 
the manifold evidences of his fallen condition within 
and around him, is bound to accept (or perhaps we 
should say is free to accept) unquestioningly the 
statement of Mr. Campbell that it was God who fell, 
although that stupendous assertion is unsupported by 
either authority or evidence. 

But such is the logical result of the cardinal doctrine 
of the New Theology. If, indeed, man has within 
himself the infallible discerner of truth, it necessarily 
follows that proof of any proposition becomes wholly 
superfluous. But this convenient principle, if fully 
carried out, would logically be destructive of the New 



70 NEW THEOLOGIES 

Theology, as of every other ; for so soon as the intelli- 
gent disciple learns that the source and arbiter of 
truth is within himself, and that the imaginations of 
his own heart possess the highest sanction that is to be 
had, he will certainly not be so foolish, so inconsistent, 
and so false to his cardinal principle, as to put aside 
his own notions, sanctioned by the god within him, for 
those of Mr. Campbell or of any one else. The 
moment the cardinal principle of this New Theology is 
accepted, every one not only may, but must, be the 
author of his own " new theology," and must reverently 
take all his instruction from, and direct all his worship 
to, " the god within." One who adopts the principle, 
" never mind what the Bible says about this or that if 
you are in search of truth, but trust the voice of god 
within you," will certainly understand, as a necessary 
corollary, that if he is not to mind what the Bible says, 
still less should he mind what Mr. Campbell says, 
" about this or that." 

Thus the first lesson of the New Theology teaches 
its disciples to pay no heed to its other lessons ; and 
that this first lesson will be generally heeded can 
hardly be doubted, because the time is fully ripe for its 
acceptance. 

That man should come ultimately to worship 
himself was a foregone conclusion from the first trans- 
gression whereby sin entered the world and death 
through sin. The far-off goal which man started to 



THE DEITY OF HUMANITY 71 

attain by his own efforts when he departed from his 
Creator's purpose in making him (Gen. i. 26-28) was 
to become "as God" (Gen. iii. 5, R.V.). And the 
great spirit of evil who instigated the present " career 
of humanity, 11 and who has encouraged and aided it in 
all its long and painful progress, is now sedulously 
teaching through "his ministers, transformed as the 
ministers of righteousness" (2 Cor. xi. 15), that the 
last stage of the great journey has been reached, and 
that man has actually become " as God." 

We quote some other passages from Mr. Campbell 
wherein the divinity of humanity is asserted : 

" Where, then, some will say, is the dividing 

line between our being and God's ? There is no 

dividing line except from our side " (p. 34). 

The force of this exception is that human beings 

make a dividing line where none really exists. This 

they do by failing to recognize their essential oneness 

with God, just as the estuary or arm of the sea might 

think itself a limited affair, not recognizing its essential 

oneness with the mighty ocean. (This is Mr. 

Campbell's own illustration of the doctrine.) 

" My God is my deeper self, and yours too ; 
He is the self of the universe, and knows all about 
it. He is never baffled, and cannot be baffled ; 
the whole cosmic process is one long incarnation 
and uprising of the being of God from itself to 
itself "(p. 35). 



72 NEW THEOLOGIES 

In spite of the obscurity of this utterance its essential 
meaning is plain enough, and the impression it may 
make upon the reader must depend mainly upon his 
apprehension of how " sin in the flesh " appears in the 
eyes of the thrice-holy God. By those who have the 
faintest apprehension of this, the assertion that sinful 
man and the Holy God are essentially one can be 
regarded only as shocking blasphemy. 

When, therefore, we hear unblushingly proclaimed, 
and by one who passes as a Christian minister, this 
hideous doctrine of the Diety of humanity, and when 
we find that doctrine taking in men's hearts and minds 
the place of " the doctrine of Christ," we can in a 
measure understand what stirred the heart of the 
Apostle when he wrote in the chapter already quoted, 
" But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled 
Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be 
corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ" 
(2 Cor. xi. 3). 

Again Mr. Campbell says : 

" Fundamentally the individual is one with the 
whole race and with God " (p. 39). 

" Strictly speaking, the human and the Divine 
are two categories which shade into and imply 
each other. Humanity is Divinity viewed from 
below. Divinity is humanity viewed from above " 
(P- 73). 

"The New Theology regards all mankind as 



MAN HIS OWN JUDGE 73 

'being of one substance with the Father" 
(p. 41). 

Of course, it follows from this that there is no 
accountability for sins and wickednesses. 

If all mankind is of one substance with the Father, 
then God cannot be dissociated from the doings of 
men, and indeed He has been and is the Participator 
with man in all the wicked doings which the Bible 
denounces. It is of such as teach and hold such things 
that the Lord says : 

" Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an 
one as thyself; but I will reprove thee " (Ps. 1. 21). 
Indeed, according to New Theology, there is no 
punishment; and, in fact, there is no one to punish 
the offender, if there were an offender to be punished. 
Here are Mr. Campbell's declarations on that subject : 
" There is no such thing as punishment, no far- 
off' Judgment Day, no great white throne, and no 
Judge external to ourselves *" (p. 213). 

"And who, pray, is the judge? Who but 
yourself? The deeper self is the judge, the self 
who is externally one zvith God " (p. 215). 
It is safe to predict, in that event, that the culprit, 
if there could be one according to this system, would 
escape with a very light sentence ; or more probably 
would receive the commendation of the Court. 

It is also safe to say that this comfortable teaching 
will commend itself highly to the evil-doers of this 
6 



74 NEW THEOLOGIES 

lawless age. Indeed, it is the avowed purpose of the 
New Theolegy to furnish a system of doctrine which 
shall meet with popular favour. This brings us to the 
recognition of the important place in this system which 
is held by the principles of Democracy. 

We have already reminded our readers that the 
essence of Democracy is that the will of the people is 
the supreme law. The majority must control in every 
matter of common interest. From this principle it is 
easy to pass to the assumption that the will of the 
people is right, and that the test of every doctrine 
is its popularity. This assumption will be found 
to be inherent in all the new theologies and religious 
movements of our day. Whether or not a doctrine 
be true is not important ; the important question is, 
Does it suit the taste of the multitude ? Will the 
people approve and accept it ? Will it get the votes ? 
The principles of Democracy are necessarily involved 
in the New Theology ; for if humanity is Divine, then 
it follows inevitably that whatever humanity may 
approve has the Divine sanction. Speaking of this 
aspect of the New Theology, Mr. Campbell says : 

"This higher, wider truth which sweeps away 
the mischievous accretions which have made 
religion distasteful to the masses, is the religious 
articulation of the movement towards an ideal 
social order " (p. 225). 
A moment's reflection on conditions which exist 



DOCTRINE MUST PLEASE THE PEOPLE 75 

throughout Christendom at the present time will show 
us how widely this principle of Democracy prevails, 
and how profoundly it affects the thought of the day. 
Preaching is largely controlled, not by the consideration 
of faithfulness to the message of the Word, but by the 
desire to satisfy the wishes of the congregation by whom 
the preacher is " supported " ; not by reference to what 
men need, but by reference to what they want. To 
ascertain the taste of the populace, so as to present that 
which is palatable to the masses, many experiments are 
being tried, whereby God is dishonoured and His wrath 
provoked every day. 

No doubt it is very pleasing to the masses to be told 
that "all mankind is of one substance with the 
Father." On the other hand, what renders the truth 
of God " distasteful to the masses " is the repeated and 
uncompromising testimony of His Word that man is 
by nature a sinner, utterly corrupt, whose imaginations 
are evil, whose very righteousnesses are filthy rags, 
whose tendencies are to go astray ; that men are, one 
and all, from the least to the greatest, wholly lost, 
undone, dead in trespasses and sins, under present con- 
demnation, in the grasp of death, and destined, unless 
saved by the grace and power of God, to eternal 
perdition. It is very "distasteful to the masses" to 
be informed that man is, not only "ungodly," but 
also " without strength " (Rom. v. 6), insomuch that he 
is unable to do anything whatsoever to recover himself 



76 NEW THEOLOGIES 

out of his evil estate. Hence the New Theology openly 
declares it to be an important part of its mission to 
sweep away everything that is "distasteful to the 
masses, 11 and to substitute for Truth such a system of 
teaching that every man can find in it what is 
thoroughly suited to his tastes. That such a system 
will commend itself to popular approbation is reason- 
ably certain ; and if the people approve it, then, 
according to the principles of Democracy, it has 
justified itself, and earned a permanent place among 
human institutions. 

This brings us to the observation that in the New 
Theology there is, of course, no "salvation" in the 
Scriptural sense of that word. Man needs no Saviour, 
for there is nothing to be saved from. Salvation, 
therefore, according to New Theology, consists in 
attaining to a knowledge of the oneness of the indi- 
vidual with God, and with the whole human race. 
For this purpose, man is his own saviour. Salvation, 
according to Mr. Campbell, consists "in ceasing to 
be selfish " (p. 210). He says : 

" Every man who is trying to live so as to make 
his life a blessing to the world is being saved him- 
self in the process " (p. 210). 

"There is no stopping-place between sinner 
and Saviour. This is the way in which men like 
Robert Blatchford of the Clarion 1 are being 
1 An avowed opponent of Christianity. 



NEW THEOLOGY AND SOCIALISM 77 

saved while trying to save. . . . His moral 
earnestness is a mark of his Christhood, and his 
work a part of the atonement. Not another 
Christ than Jesus, mind ! The very same. Mr. 
Blatchford may laugh at this, 1 and call his moral 
aspirations by quite a different name. Well, let 
him ; but I know the thing when I see it. This 
is Salvation" (p. 211). 

We have now seen that, according to the New 
Theology, man is essentially divine ; and, in order that 
there may be no mistake about the doctrine, we are 
assured that even a man who openly derides the Christ 
of God is one with Him, and that the dead works of 
the infidel and scoffer are " part of the atonement " 
made by the Saviour of men. It is thus made perfectly 
obvious that the main purpose of that movement is to 
put Man in the supreme place. 

The New Theology thus clearly discloses that its 
aim is to prepare the way for that ultimate condition 
of human society in which a man shall oppose and 
exalt himself above all that is called God or that is 
worshipped (2 Thess. ii. 4). It perfectly fulfils this 
prominent feature of the prophecies mentioned above. 

We have also seen that the New Theology incor- 
porates in itself the essence of pure Democracy, and 

1 And, in fact, he does laugh hilariously ; but to those 
who believe on the Son of God it will seem that these 
statements approach the extreme limits of blasphemy. 



78 NEW THEOLOGIES 

squarely plants itself upon confidence in the inherent 
po wei*s of man. 

We now come to consider the important fact that 
the tendency of the New Theology is towards the 
formation of a system wherein the religious and business 
interests of humanity shall be consolidated, thus fulfilling 
another striking feature of the prophetic Scriptures. 

Mr. Campbell declares that Christianity has, for the 
moment, lost its hold upon men ; but he predicts 
the recovery of its hold through identifying itself with 
the great social movements of the age, which are now 
taking place in every civilized country in the world. 
These movements, he says, are pressing towards 
" universal peace and brotherhood." Here we clearly 
perceive the ideal of the great Confederacy. 

Mr. Campbell then makes the significant statement 
that the great social movement is really the same 
movement as that which, in the religious sphere, is 
coming to be called the New Theology. " This fact," 
he says, " needs to be realized and brought out." 

Here, then, is a clear statement of the fact that the 
great social movements, and the great religious move- 
ments of our day, though apparently far apart in some 
respects, are " really the same movement," and that 
all are advancing rapidly towards the formation of one 
organization or social system, which shall be both 
secular and religious. 



NEW THEOLOGY & LABOUR MOVEMENT 79 

Here are some pertinent passages from Mr. 
CampbelFs book : 

" Assuredly Christianity has for the moment 
lost his hold. Can it recover it? I am sure it 
can, if only because the moral movements of the 
age such as the great Labour Movement, are in 
reality the expression of the Christian spirit, and 
only need to recognize themselves as such in order 
to become irresistible. The wagon of Socialism 
needs to be hitched to the star of religious faith." 
(p. 8). 

"The great Social Movement, which is now 
taking place in every country of the civilized world 
towards universal peace and brotherhood, and a 
better and fairer distribution of wealth, is REALLY 
THE SAME MOVEMENT as that which, in the more 
distinctively religious sphere, is coming to be 
called the New Theology. This fact needs to be 
realized and brought out. 

" The New Theology is but the religions arti- 
culation of the social movement 1 ' (p. 14). 

Mr. Campbell points out (pp. 251-254) that the 
present conditions of life of the great masses of 
humanity are intolerably unjust, and abound in all sorts 
of evils and miseries. He calls attention to the exist- 
ence of slums and sweat-shops, of paupers and able- 
bodied unemployed, of abject poverty and degradation, 



80 NEW THEOLOGIES 

of over-crowded and disease-breeding tenements. He 
argues that the existing Economic System is the cause 
of these conditions ; for of course he does not recognize 
them as incidents and results of the self-chosen " career 
of humanity," suggested by the spirit of evil. He then 
refers approvingly to Socialism, which he calls " the 
movement towards social regeneration, 11 and which he 
declares to be " really and truly a spiritual movement." 
With this movement he thoroughly identifies the 
New Theology, saying : 

" In fact the Labour Party is itself a church, 
in the sense in which that word was originally 
used ; for it represents the getting together of 
those who want to bring about the Kingdom of 
God. The New Theology, as I understand it, is 
the theology of this movement, whether the move- 
ment knows it or not, for it is essentially the 
gospel of the Kingdom of God." 

"This higher, wider truth, which sweeps away 
the mischievous accretions which have made 
religion distasteful to the masses, is the religious 
articulation of the movement towards an ideal 
social order " (p. 255). 

Evidently, it is only necessary for Socialism to permit 
itself to be styled " Christian " in order to make its 
distinctive doctrines acceptable in many quarters 
where that name still retains a value, although every- 
thing that it once signified has been cast aside. It is 



NEW THEOLOGY AND SCIENCE 81 

the " ideal social order " which is the real aim of the 
New Theology ; and we have already observed that the 
essential characteristics of this ideal are the marks of 
that great system, described eighteen centuries ago in 
the Word of Truth, in which the activities of man, in 
his self-chosen lines of progress and civilizations, are to 
have their culmination. 

On this point Mr. Campbell says : 

" This then is the mission of the New Theology. 
It is to brighten and keep burning the flame of 
the spiritual ideal in the midst of the mighty 
social movement which is now in progress. 1 ' 

In this day, when the word " science " is being freely 
used by theologians of a certain class to* intimidate 
ignorant and thoughtless people, and to furnish a 
substitute for the Word of God as the foundation of 
religious systems, it is important to note carefully the 
position assigned to science in these new movements, 
and then (as we propose doing later on) to subject the 
claims of this " science " to a rigid examination. On 
this point Mr. Campbell says : 

"Again, the New Theology is the religion of 
science. ... It is the recognition that, upon 
the foundations laid by modern science, a vaster 
and nobler fabric of faith is rising than the world 
has ever before known" (p. 15). 
Those " who profess and call themselves Christians " 



82 NEW THEOLOGIES 

should mark well the expressions of this sort, with 
which current religious literature abounds, and which 
are producing a very general impression to the effect 
that " science " has, to a greater or less extent, removed 
or disturbed the foundations upon which Christian 
faith has rested through the centuries. These state- 
ments are rapidly preparing the minds of people, in 
this day of shallow thinking, to accept any doctrine 
brought forth in the name of " science." The Psalmist 
anxiously inquires "If the foundations be destroyed 
what can the righteous do ? " (Ps. xi. 3). To that 
question the New Theology has its answer ready, 
namely, " We shall build upon the foundations laid by 
modern science a vaster and nobler fabric of faith than 
the world has ever before known." 

Mr. Campbell further develops the idea of Unifica- 
tion, and shows the breadth of the New Theology, by 
declaring its practical identity (not only with the social 
movements of the day, but also) with the forward 
movements in various ecclesiastical systems, such as 
" Modernism." He says : 

" In the Church of Rome the movement (i.e. 
New Theology) is typified by men like Father 
Tyrrell, whose teaching has led to his expulsion 
from the Jesuit Order, but not so far from the 
priesthood. 

" In the Church of England a large and increas- 
ing band of men are looking in this direction and 



THE KINDRED OF NEW THEOLOGY 83 

are making their influence felt. Of these perhaps 
the most outspoken is Archdeacon Wilberforce, 
but he is by no means alone. 

" A movement has begun in the Lutheran 
Church. It has existed for a long time in French 
Protestantism. 

" In the Congregational and other Evangelical 
Churches of England and America the same 
attitude is being taken by many who are not even 
aware that the name ' New Theology ' is being 
applied to it " (p. 13). 

Here is the plain declaration that, in various com- 
panies, under different standards, and along different 
but converging roads, the religious crowds are pressing 
towards a common goal. That goal has but recently 
burst upon their rapturous vision, but it was foreseen 
and foretold long ago by the seer of Patmos. Com- 
mercialism in a religious garb, an ecclesiastical Trust, 
a world-wide Confederacy embracing all human 
interests, is now the ideal which arouses the enthusiasm 
of mankind and inspires the movements which are 
stirring in all the religious bodies of Christendom. 

Some little mental effort is required in order to 
realize the significance of all this ; and the reader will 
do well to ponder these things, and try to grasp the 
meaning of the strange and ominous fact that, in 
systems so widely different and so long bitterly 
antagonistic, there has suddenly sprung up a common 



84 NEW THEOLOGIES 

ideal, which is of such potency as to start them all 
in motion along converging lines towards a common 
destination. There has been nothing like it in the 
history of mankind ; and it follows necessarily that the 
outcome must be something transcending all previous 
human experience. 

As already stated, Mr. Campbell's New Theology 
is not a stable system, but a rapidly shifting movement. 
Many of its doctrines are too extravagant and foolish 
even for this unthinking and credulous generation. 
We are therefore not concerned with its details 
(which will quickly disappear), but with its tendencies. 
Despite all its vagaries, crudities, and blasphemies, it is 
doing the work of spreading the ideals of religious and 
industrial Federation on the basis of the Divinity of 
Man in quarters where those ideals might not other- 
wise find ready acceptance. 

New Theology also furnishes one of many indications 
that the history of corrupt religion has now entered 
upon its final stage. From it we may learn that 
Commercialism has now supplied to Religion the funda- 
mental principle by which the former is regulated, 
namely, that the purveyors of doctrine must be con- 
trolled, like the purveyors of all other commodities, by 
the universal " law of supply and demand." On every 
side we see evidences of the recognition of this " law " 
in the conduct of ecclesiastical institutions. What the 



CHRISTIAN MINISTER & INFIDEL EDITOR 85 

public demands, these "advanced theologians," who 
cater to it, give all diligence to supply. Their study 
is, not to show themselves " approved unto God, rightly 
dividing the Word of truth," but to show themselves 
approved unto men, " handling the Word of God 
deceitfully," or setting it aside altogether. 

But, what is perhaps the most striking thing about 
the New Theology is its claim of kinship with Socialism 
of the sort represented by Mr. Robert Blatchford of 
the London Clarion, who publicly, and even exult- 
ingly, avows himself an infidel. We are confronted, 
then, in the New Theology, with a religion which, 
while retaining the name " Christian," yet is in full 
accord in every essential matter with infidel Socialism. 
Surely it is but a short step from this to a system in 
which all shades of religious opinion shall be blended 
harmoniously in subordination to the great principle of 
the Solidarity of Mankind, or the Brotherhood and 
Divinity of Man. 

Mr. Blatchford, in reviewing Mr. Campbell's book, 
declares that its main doctrines are but paraphrases of 
those advocated in his own book, God and My Neigh- 
bour}- He says : 

"Mr. Campbell is a Christian minister, and I 
am an infidel editor ; and the difference between 
his religion and mine is too small to argue about. 
But I sail under the Jolly Roger." 

1 See Literary Digest for June 8, 1907. 



86 NEW THEOLOGIES 

The " New Theology," says Mr. Blatchford, is " God 
and My Neighbour with the soft pedal on. It is 
Thomas Paine in a white tie ... the Ingersoll fist in 
a boxing glove. 11 

Mr. Blatchford is at pains to point out the full 
agreement in matters of substance between his own 
teachings and those of the New Theology, saying : 

" Mr. Campbell calls nature God. I call nature 
nature. 

" Mr. Campbell thinks we ought to have some 
form of supernatural religion, and that we ought 
to associate with Christ. I prefer a religion of 
humanity without idolatry. 

*'Mr. Campbell thinks Jesus the most perfect 
man that ever lived. I think there have been 
many men as good, and some better. But beyond 
these differences I think I may venture to say 
there is nothing Mr. Campbell believes that I deny, 
and nothing I believe that he denies. Beyond 
these differences I am as much a Christian as is the 
Rev. R. J. Campbell ; and the Rev. R. J. Campbell 
is as much an infidel as is the editor of the Clarion. 
" Mr. Campbell rejects the doctrines of the fall 
and the atonement. He denies the divinity of 
Christ, the virgin birth, and the resurrection. 
He denies the inspiration and infallibility of the 
Bible, and he rejects the idea of divine punishment 
and an everlasting hell. So do I. 



A STRANGE COMBINATION 87 

"Mr. Campbell abandons the orthodox theory 
of sin, and says that selfishness is sin, and that 
unselfishness is morality and salvation. So do I. 

"These are bold assertions, and perhaps Mr. 
Campbell may think them too sweeping ; but 
the proof is easy. The best proof is a compar- 
ison of the 'New Theology 1 with my 'infidel' 
books." 

Here, then, in the course of the progress of "this 
present evil age " (Gal. i. 4) we have arrived at a brand 
of " Christianity " which differs so little from the most 
radical variety of infidel Socialism that the points of 
difference are " too small to argue about " ; indeed 
they are far less important than many existing differ- 
ences between members of the same religious denomina- 
tion. It may be fairly inferred from this that we are 
not far from a religio-commercial basis upon which all 
men who reject the Word of God and the Christ of 
God can solidly unite, and unite in such strength as 
to assume the complete control and direction of the 
religious and secular affairs of a consolidated human 
society. 



88 NEW THEOLOGIES 

THE NEW THEOLOGY OF NEW ENGLAND 

We now cast our eyes upon the American continent 
in order to take note of the progress which, in this 
newer civilization, has been made by the ideals of the 
unification of mankind, and the consolidation of all 
human interests. 

New England was once the home of sound doctrine. 
Its rocky soil was originally populated by men who 
feared God, implicitly believed and submitted to the 
authority of His Word, and rested their hope of 
salvation wholly upon the sacrificial death of the Lord 
Jesus Christ on the Cross of Calvary. Such were the 
religious convictions of the men who laid the founda- 
tions of the New England commonwealths, and such 
have been the convictions likewise of their descendants 
for many generations. 

One of the oldest and best known churches in this 
important section of the American Republic is the 
" Old South Church " of Boston ; and its name has 
long been associated with sturdy orthodoxy. 

The present pastor of that Church, Dr. George 
A. Gordon, has lately contributed to the Harvard 
Theological Review l (an Unitarian quarterly) a notable 
article, significantly entitled " The Collapse of the New 
England Theology." A few extracts from this article 
will afford a good indication of the present drift of 
1 April 1908. 



COLLAPSE OF NEW ENGLAND THEOLOGY 89 

religious thought in New England, and of the stage of 
departure from the old beliefs at which this movement 
has now arrived. And what is more pertinent to the 
present subject, these extracts will show what head- 
way has been made (in what was once the centre of 
orthodoxy, and still is perhaps the centre of intelligence 
and learning of the American continent) by the move- 
ment which aims at the exaltation of Man and the 
formation of the great system of the end-times. The 
very title of the article is deeply significant ; for whether 
one regards what has occurred as a calamity or as a 
benefit, in either view of the matter the word " collapse " 
indicates that the change which has taken place is one 
of the most radical sort. 

Dr. Gordon might, more aptly and more honestly, 
have entitled his article the " Collapse of the Doctrine 
of Christ," for that is what he assumes to be a fact, and 
what he undertakes to explain. He does not undertake 
to prove the collapse, but assumes it as a fact too palp- 
able to require proof. Apparently Dr. Gordon deemed 
it expedient to make some concession to the few who 
still cling to the old beliefs, and so he has partly veiled 
the purport of his article under the title quoted above. 

Mr. Huxley adopted a similar expedient when he 
gave in America a course of lectures attacking the 
Genesis account of Creation. In doing this, he dis- 
creetly directed his attack against what he called the 
" Miltonic Cosmogony." But though he diplomatically 
7 



90 NEW THEOLOGIES 

gave it this name, the teaching he was opposing was 
not that of Milton, but that of the Sacred Scriptures. 
In like manner it doubtless seemed to Dr. Gordon that a 
" Christian' 1 minister, in attacking the doctrine of Christ, 
would do well to call that doctrine by another name. 
Hence the title "Collapse of the New England Theology. 11 

Dr. Gordon explains that what he means by the 
" New England Theology " is the teaching of Jonathan 
Edwards, Samuel Hopkins, Nathaniel W. Taylor, and 
other godly preachers, mighty in the Scriptures, men 
who received and preached the Bible " not as the word 
of man, but as it is in truth the Word of God 11 
(1 Thess. ii. 13), and who proclaimed forgiveness of 
sins and eternal life through faith in the crucified and 
risen Son of God. This theology, which is virtually " the 
faith once for all delivered unto the saints," has, accord- 
ing to Dr. Gordon, undergone a total collapse; and taking 
the collapse for granted as an obvious and indisputable 
fact, he undertakes to show what brought it about. 

In pursuing this subject, we will consider -first, the 
fact of the change which Dr. Gordon calls a " collapse " ; 
second, the explanation he gives for the collapse ; and 
third, the new system of theology which is supplanting 
that which has collapsed. 

I. THE "COLLAPSE" 

That Dr. Gordon has good reason for assuming his 
premises will not, probably, be very seriously disputed. 



A GREAT DEPARTURE 91 

it being a conspicuous fact that the churches of New 
England have, in large and increasing numbers, de- 
parted from the preaching of the truths proclaimed 
so powerfully and fruitfully by those great preachers 
of a bygone day. The people who "support" the 
ministers have a perfect right, according to the accepted 
standards of the day, to the kind of preaching which 
suits them. It would be manifestly unreasonable 
to expect them to "pay for 1 ' the kind of preach- 
ing they dislike ; and it is quite certain that the 
cultured and prosperous classes of to-day will not 
endure the doctrines of the old New England 
theology. 

Still, making full allowance for all this, it may be 
questioned whether Dr. Gordon is justified in describing 
the great change which has undoubtedly taken place 
as a "collapse." Students of Scripture will readily 
identify it as " the apostasy " (2 Thess. ii. 3) which is 
to take place before the Man of Sin should be revealed. 
This condition of Christendom upon which Dr. Gordon 
comments, and which the Bible foretells, was to be 
characterized, according to Scripture, by intolerance of 
sound doctrine on the part of church-goers, and by their 
heaping to themselves teachers, instead of receiving the 
teachers sent to them from God. " For the time will 
come when they will not endure sound doctrine ; but 
after their own desires shall they heap to themselves 
teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn 



92 NEW THEOLOGIES 

away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned 
unto fables " (2 Tim. iv. 3, 4). 

While many would warmly deny that the old New 
England preachers proclaimed "the truth," and that 
the successors to their pulpits have substituted " fables,"" 
no one can fairly dispute that the church attendants 
of to-day have "turned away their ears' 1 from the 
doctrines to which their fathers listened, that they 
have "given heed" to doctrines which involve the 
contradiction of everything formerly held to be essen- 
tial ; and further, that they uniformly exercise the right 
of " heaping to themselves teachers " who are strictly 
held to the duty of teaching the things which their 
ears itch to hear. 

Dr. Gordon himself fully recognizes, and is in entire 
accord with, the principles of Democracy. The " rights 
of man " is the great ruling principle of the day (i.e. 
of " Man's Day ") ; and unquestionably among the 
rights upon which men most stubbornly insist is 
the right to have the kind of teaching which is 
acceptable to the majority, namely, the teaching which 
exalts man, extols his achievements, lauds his progress 
and his sciences, and prophesies the glorious outcome of 
his heroic endeavours. This popular demand might be 
accurately voiced in the words of the prophet Isaiah, 
who speaks of "children that will not hear the law 
of the Lord ; which say to the seers, See not ; and to 
the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak 



THE DISCARDED DOCTRINES 93 

unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits ; get you out 
of the way, turn aside out of the path, cause the Holy 
One of Israel to cease from before us" (Is. xxx. 9-11). 

Here, then, is Dr. Gordon's description of the 
theology of the old New England preachers which, he 
says, has collapsed : 

"These thinkers without exception held the 
Sovereignty of God, whether construed as includ- 
ing or not including the fall ; they held to the 
innate depravity of mankind; they traced this 
universal condition of the race to the sin of the 
first man ; . . . they were agreed that without 
atonement there was no forgiveness of sin, and 
that this necessary atonement had been made by 
Jesus Christ ; they were united in the belief that 
the Holy Spirit is essential to the conversion 
and regeneration of man, that till the Spirit's 
influence descends upon him man is helpless in 
the presence of his moral obligation ; that when 
the divine grace comes it is irresistible ; . . . 
and they were unanimous in their conviction that 
true believers in Jesus Christ will persevere to the 
end and be saved with an everlasting salvation.'" 
While Dr. Gordon's definitions here given could 
be improved upon, it is nevertheless perfectly clear 
that he is attempting to describe the essential 
doctrines of the Bible, and that in saying that the 
theology whereof the above doctrines were the sub- 



94 NEW THEOLOGIES 

stance has collapsed, he is, in effect, saying that the 
teaching of the Bible has collapsed. In fact, one count 
in his indictment of the old New England preachers 
of Christ is that they were in bondage to a book. 

He thus describes the attitude of these preachers 
of the old doctrines : 

"The attitude of indiscriminating reverence 
towards the Bible was, on the part of the New 
England divines, the inheritance of faith. They 
were in bondage to a book ; and while it was 
the supreme book to which they were in bondage, 
the fact that here, in this greatest sphere of 
the free intellect, they had no dream of the 
function of the intellect, is another reason why 
their domain has passed away. 11 

"Their ideal of the sphere of reason was a 
meagre and restricted ideal." 

While the language used by Dr. Gordon is more 
guarded than that of Mr. Campbell, and while the 
former is more cautious than the latter in advancing 
his propositions, it is quite clear that their meaning 
is in substance the same. In the sentences just 
quoted we have the very clear statement that one 
of the mistakes of the old New England preachers 
was that they subordinated the human intellect to 
the Bible, instead of subordinating the Bible to the 
human intellect. 

It will be observed that one of the prominent 



THE BIBLE REPUDIATED 95 

characteristics of all these movements of the day is 
a determined effort to discredit the Bible, and to set 
aside its claim of authority over mankind. Democracy 
implies a state of freedom from all authority except 
that which is self-imposed. But this exception is 
really not an exception at all, since authority that 
is self-imposed is authority in name only. Mankind 
has so far carried into practice the theory of "self- 
government" (so called) that there is now, in the 
progressive countries of the world, no claim of 
authority to be reckoned with except that of the 
Bible. The voice of this troublesome book cannot 
apparently be silenced. Even in this progressive 
day its unwelcome demands sound in the ears of 
men. Its claim of absolute authority over the acts, 
and words, and even thoughts, of men is still heard, 
and its demand that they shall render to it implicit 
obedience as the unchangeable Word of the living 
God, has not yet been disposed of. Although men 
conduct theological seminaries equipped with learned 
professors, and employ the most gifted minds to 
teach and preach "the freedom of the human intel- 
lect,' 1 and to proclaim the end of the old order of 
submission to the Bible, nevertheless the voice of the 
latter has not yet been wholly stifled. This voice is 
now the chief, if not the only, remaining obstacle in 
the way of pure Democracy ; and hence the tremend- 
ous efforts which have been, and yet are being, put 



96 NEW THEOLOGIES 

forth to get rid of it. "That which restrains " 
must be first taken out of the way, and then shall 
that Lawless One be revealed (2 Thess. ii. 7, 8). 

Moreover, the description which the Bible gives 
of the present era of confederation, of the great system 
in which it is to culminate, and particularly of the 
Superman who is to be its head, is so full and 
circumstantial, that these characters would be recog- 
nized by those who know the Scriptures the moment 
they appear upon the scene. 

It is therefore essential to the success of Satan's 
last and greatest undertaking, that the way for it 
should be prepared by discrediting the Bible. This, 
doubtless, is the mission of the Higher Criticism, 
which, notwithstanding that the emptiness of its 
pretensions and worthlessness of its "results" have 
been thoroughly exposed, has nevertheless succeeded 
in spreading among the masses of church-goers and 
others the idea that the doctrine of an inspired and 
authoritative Bible has been discarded by all com- 
petent scholars; and that the few who cling to 
that antiquated notion are either ignorant, feeble- 
minded, or fanatical. It is for this purpose that we 
see arrayed against the authority of Scripture the 
imposing names of Science, Progress, Freedom of 
Intellect, Scholarship, and the like. These be the 
names of the modern Philistines which defy the 
armies of the living God. 



WHAT CAUSED THE "COLLAPSE" 97 

This work of the Higher Criticism and its allies 
has created an atmosphere in which it is possible for 
the apostles of the new theologies to proclaim the 
emancipation of the human intellect from " bondage 
to a book," and boldly to say to those in quest of 
the truth, " Never mind what the Bible says about 
this or that," thus cutting them off from the only 
deposit of Truth to which human beings have access. 

In commenting upon the progress of the principles 
of Democracy among the nations of the world, it is 
worthy of mention that, since the writer began to 
put these notes into shape for publication, two events 
of great importance have taken place, by which 
those principles have been vastly extended. One of 
these is the curtailment of the autocratic power of 
the German Emperor, and the other is the establish- 
ment of popular government in Turkey. 

II. THE EXPLANATION OF THE 
"COLLAPSE" 

Having ascertained what the system is which, 
according to Dr. Gordon, has collapsed, we now look 
for the reasons advanced by him in explanation of that 
collapse. At first we would ask, Where has the change 
occurred which is responsible for the collapse ? Not in 
the doctrine, of course, for that is changeless. It must 
be, then, that the people of the present generation are 



98 NEW THEOLOGIES 

different, in radical respects, from those who accepted 
the old New England Theology. Yes, the change is 
in the people. The children are not as were their 
forefathers ; and from what Dr. Gordon says about the 
freedom of the intellect in these advanced days, it is 
evident that the great change which accounts for the 
collapse of the New England Theology is one of an 
intellectual sort. 

How, then, have the people changed intellectually 
for the better or for the worse ? Is it improvement, or 
deterioration ? Let Dr. Gordon answer that question. 
He says : 

" This age is characterized by a strong aversion 
to severe thinking. Immediacy has become a 
habit, perhaps a disease. 1 ' 

That is to say, the people of the present time are 
impatient, restless, excitable, demanding instant results, 
shunning all processes of intellectual labour, requiring 
that even the news of the day be conveyed to them in 
large headlines, which can be taken in at a single 
glance of the eye. No one has time to think or to do 
anything that requires deliberation. Everybody is in 
a hurry to catch a train ; and when they reach their 
destination the next question is, " Where shall we go ? " 

This is what Mr. Gordon means by "immediacy **; 
and he emphatically declares the intellectual state of 
the modern man to be such that immediacy is "a 
habit," and " perhaps a disease." 



INTELLECTUAL DEGENERACY 99 

He further says on this point : 

" There was in those days eagerness to attack 
and master a difficult subject, a keen interest in 
a matter that, in order to be understood, had to 
be read a score of times." 

" To-day, whatever cannot be understood in the 
twinkling of an eye is generally regarded with 
aversion. The supreme heresy in thinking is the 
call to intellectual toil." 

Such being the mental characteristics of this genera- 
tion, it might be safely left to any honest and unbiassed 
mind to say whether we have not here a full and satis- 
factory explanation of the " collapse " of the New Eng- 
land Theology. Surely, in this shallowness, superficiality, 
and intellectual sloth which characterize the present 
day, and in the feverish pursuit of money and pleasure 
which absorbs its energies, is to be found an explana- 
tion fully adequate to account for the rapid develop- 
ment of that apostasy which Dr. Gordon regards as 
progress in religious thought. 

Yet Dr. Gordon is so illogical, and so blind to 
conclusions which follow inevitably from his own 
premises, as to attribute the " collapse " of the New 
England Theology to its defective character when 
tested by the present-day standards of knowledge and 
morality. He says : 

" The chief cause of collapse must be found in 
the character of the ancient creed.' 1 '' 



100 NEW THEOLOGIES 

" It fell from power because it was found beneath 
the best religious consciousness of the time. It 
was found to be outgrown in two fundamental 
ways, it was outgrown in knowledge and in ethical 
conceptions.' 1 

These are very weighty statements, and we will do 
well to grasp fully their import. The discarded doc- 
trines, says Dr. Gordon, which, be it remembered, are 
the essential Christian verities proclaimed by the Bible, 
have been found to be beneath the best religious 
consciousness of the present time. This generation, 
having come to a knowledge of itself, has found that the 
" ancient creed " had been outgrown in two ways, both 
of them " fundamental," namely, (1) in knowledge and 
(2) in conceptions of righteousness. More simply 
stated, this generation is too learned and too good for 
the ancient creed. Therefore they have discarded it, 
and are demanding something nearer to their own high 
level. The Bible is outgrown by the modern man : in 
knowledge and in righteousness ! Who says so ? The 
modern man himself says so, and who is there to 
gainsay it ? 

This explanation demands a careful examination ; 
and when examined it will be found to be saturated 
with the concentrated essence of the religion of 
Humanism. It involves two important assumptions 
namely, Jirst, that the popular taste is the final test of 
doctrine ; and second, that man himself is his own saviour 



NEW THEOLOGIES IN OLDEN TIMES 101 

through the process of evolution. This will more 
clearly appear from subsequent quotations ; but at this 
point we would notice again the assumption which is 
involved in all the utterances of this sort, so often 
heard from the pulpits and read in the religious 
papers, namely, that the final test of the soundness and 
fitness of a doctrine, or system of doctrine, is whether 
or not it finds favour with the religious crowd. If it is 
popular, it is right ; if not popular, it is by that fact 
alone discredited and condemned. 

This test is a corollary of the doctrine of "the 
survival of the fittest " ; and its general acceptance is 
also aided largely by the subtle influence of the 
principles of Democracy. No one seems to question 
the test, or to ask if acceptability to the mass of people 
be really an infallible proof of sound doctrine. That is 
simply taken for granted. 

Doubtless there have been incidents of a similar 
sort in times past. In the progressive days of 
King Ahab, for example, opportunity was afforded to 
the learned doctors of theology graduates of the 
seminaries patronized so generously by that eminently 
devout and religious queen Jezebel to employ their 
gifts and learning in framing explanations accounting 
for the collapse of the Israelitish Theology, as ex- 
pounded to previous generations by Moses, Joshua, and 
Samuel. And we may assume that the exponents of 
the new and popular theology of that day improved 



102 NEW THEOLOGIES 

the opportunity to the entire satisfaction of their 
congregations, and that they put forth their learned 
explanations with all the garnishment of ponderous 
diction and polysyllabic utterance. And we may also 
assume that, if the discourses of these eminent theo- 
logians had come down to us, we should find, on 
examining them, that the substance of their sapient 
explanations was that the ancient creed had fallen from 
power because it was beneath the best religious con- 
sciousness of the times, that those deceased prophets 
had been in bondage to the Book of the Law, that they 
failed to apprehend the function of the free intellect, 
and that their theology had been outgrown in 
knowledge and in ethical conceptions. 

For, if the will of the people be the true test of 
doctrine, that test was just as valid in Samaria, in the 
days of those very religious rulers, Ahab and his royal 
consort, as in Boston in the days of President 
Roosevelt. 

The New England Theology " fell from power," says 
Dr. Gordon, " because it was found beneath the best 
religious consciousness of the time." Did not Christ 
then, and His teaching, " fall from power " for the 
same reason ? Was not He, by the unanimous voice of 
the people, rejected and cast out to the Roman execu- 
tioners, and for the reason that His teaching was 
displeasing to the religious crowd and their leaders ? 
If Dr. Gordon had been living in that day, would he 



"AWAY WITH HIM" 103 

not have found, in the facts of the life, ministry, and 
death of Jesus Christ, all the materials for a profound 
discourse upon the " Collapse of the Doctrine of Jesus 
Christ ? " And would not that discourse have com- 
mended itself to the best religious consciousness of the 
time ? Was not the principal charge against Him that 
of blasphemy against the Most High ? And does not 
Dr. Gordon specifically charge against the old New 
England preachers that the doctrines of the sacrificial 
death of Jesus Christ, so fervently and unceasingly 
preached by them, "are the worst blasphemy ever 
offered to the Most High ? " 

We see, then, that the written Word of God is being 
subjected at the present day to precisely the same 
treatment as that to which the Incarnate Word sub- 
mitted when among men ; and this is at the hands, 
not of the publicans and harlots and sinners for the 
common people still hear Him gladly but at the 
hands of the learned doctors of theology, the accredited 
religious leaders, in association with the intellectual 
and political authorities, and with the religious crowd 
who are subject to their influence. Their cry to-day 
is the same as it was nineteen centuries ago, " Away 
with Him, Away with Him ! " and " We will not have 
this man to reign over us." Were any religious man- 
dates ever better established by "the will of the 
people" than these? Were any teachings ever so 
" distasteful to the masses " as those of Jesus Christ ? 



104 NEW THEOLOGIES 

The crucifixion answers these questions with an 
emphatic " Never." 

But this assumption of the infallibility of the popular 
taste in matters of doctrine is utterly unfounded. 
Against it we need only to say that what is true is not, 
and never has been, popular ; and that what is popular 
is not, and never has been true. 

Further items of the indictment which Dr. Gordon 
brings against the New England Theology are lack of 
originality (for being in bondage to a book they had 
no freedom to originate doctrine), " the restricted use 
of the human reason," and the persistent " refusal to 
learn from Unitarianism." 

On the latter point Dr. Gordon says : 

" Unitarianism is the complement of Trini- 
tarianism no less than its rival ; that is, if the 
Trinitarian belief in a social God is to live, it must 
be matched with the Unitarian belief in a social 
humanity. If with the Trinitarian we say God is 
Father, with the Unitarian we must say MAX is 
THE INALIENABLE CHILD OF GOD." 
This, again, is a highly important statement. Dr. 
Gordon avows himself a Trinitarian ; so we see here a 
mediation between these two systems, which, through 
all the centuries since the days of Arius and the Nicene 
Creed, have been supposedly antipodal and irreconcil- 
able. But even such differences yield to the potency 



UNITARIAN TRINITARIANISM 105 

of the modern idea of Consolidation. Unitarian- 
Trinitarianism is therefore to be counted as one of the 
products of this productive age. 

Then, again, this statement of Dr. Gordon brings 
clearly into view the idea of the Solidarity of Man. 
This is the meaning of the phrase " social humanity." 
As God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy 
Spirit are One God, even so, says Dr. Gordon, all men 
are one, there being no distinction between those who 
are " sons of God by faith in Jesus Christ " (Gal. iii. 
26, John i. 12, 13, 1 John v. 1) and those of whom the 
Lord Jesus said " Ye are of your father, the Devil " 
(John viii. 44). And this doctrine is dogmatically 
asserted (though without the slightest attempt to 
support it by proof) in the statement that " man is 
the inalienable child of God." 

Thus, as Dr. Gordon approaches the subject of that 
theology which is at the present time coming into the 
room of the discarded and collapsed theology of by- 
gone days, we begin to discern the now familiar outlines 
of the religion of Humanism, the exaltation and 
worship of Man. 

III. THE NEW THEOLOGY 

So much for the ancient belief which has "fallen 
from power," and for the explanation of its " collapse," 
as given by Dr. Gordon. What chiefly interests us is 
8 



106 NEW THEOLOGIES 

the system which is taking its place in the thoughts of 
the men of New England. As to this new religious 
system Dr. Gordon has a clear answer. He says : 

" When we come to man, we have a being 
whose essential nature is love. If God does not 
answer to man here, He falls below the work of 
His hands." 

" HUMANISM is our greatest word, because it 
covers the greatest fact we know, the phenomenal 
world of MAN." 

Again, we will do well to look carefully into the 
countenance of this new theology (which indeed is not 
new at all, but as old as Eden) and to listen carefully 
to the tones of the voice by which its pleasing doctrines 
are proclaimed. Undoubtedly it comes up fully to 
the recognized standard of the day in containing nothing 
that is in the slightest degree " distasteful to the 
masses." Hence there can be no doubt of its almost 
universal acceptance. 

Then again, it challenges God to punish the rejectors 
of Christ, and the despisers of His unspeakable gift, by 
telling Him that, if He does so, He will fall below the 
work of His own hands. Modern Man is thus set up 
as the standard by which God must regulate His own 
behaviour. 

The chief significance of the statement that man's 
essential nature is love, is that it outs man in the place 
of God, by assigning to the former the highest definition, 



MAN'S "ESSENTIAL NATURE 11 107 

which God has given us of Himself, " God is Love " 
(1 John iv. 8). This blasphemous doctrine most 
effectively exalts man to the supreme place, and is 
equivalent to asserting his Divinity. 

But if man is love, it is pertinent to ask an explana- 
tion of the outcries of the oppressed, the suffering, the 
needy. Why these courts, and prisons, and police? 
Why these demands of labourers, complaining that 
their hire is kept back by fraud? And why these 
enormous and increasing armaments on land and sea, 
under the burden of which governments are becoming 
bankrupt, and the people of all the "progressive 
nations " are being oppressed by intolerable taxation ? 
Against whom are these ingenious and destructive 
engines and these devilish explosives being prepared 
by beings whose essential nature is love ? Is it an 
uprising of the animal kingdom, or an invasion of 
demons that is feared ? 

Surely a more palpable untruth than Dr. Gordon's 
definition of the essential nature of man was never 
uttered. But we must not lose sight of the standard 
by which modern preaching is governed, namely, that 
not what is true, but what is pleasing to man, is to be 
proclaimed and taught ; and surely it is quite accept- 
able to the unreconciled and unpardoned sinner to be 
told that his essential nature is love. 

Congregations now sit as judges of the utterances 
that proceed from the pulpit. They listen critically, 



108 NEW THEOLOGIES 

and freely announce their decision, pronouncing the 
sermon " good " or " bad " ; and from their decision 
there is no appeal. If man's character and achieve- 
ments are lauded, and particularly if the divinity of 
humanity and the salvation of all men are proclaimed, 
the preacher is pretty sure of the coveted approbation. 
But if he should declare that human nature is unspeak- 
ably corrupt, that all men are by nature children of 
wrath, that those who believe not are condemned already, 
and that those who know not God and obey not the 
gospel of Christ will surely go to endless perdition, the 
sermon would be adjudged "bad," and there would 
probably ensue a lively agitation for the preacher's 
resignation. 

Then again, Dr. Gordon's definition of man is a 
flagrant and insolent contradiction of the Word of 
God; and this will still further commend it to "the 
best religious consciousness of the time." 

The Bible declares that men are by nature " full of 
envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity ; whisperers, 
backbiters, haters of God, covenant breakers, without 
natural affection, implacable, unmerciful" (Rom. i. 
29-31); that "there is none upright among men; 
they all lie in wait for blood ; they hunt every man 
his brother with a net" (Mic. vii. 2); that their 
" mouth is full of cursing and bitterness, their feet 
swift to shed blood, destruction and misery are in their 
ways, and the way of peace have they riot known"; 



" HUMANISM " OUR GREATEST WORD 109 

(Rom. iii. 14-17) ; that all, even the regenerate, were 
once "living in malice and envy, hateful and hating 
one another " (Titus iii. 3) ; being " alienated and 
enemies in their minds by wicked works " (Col. i. 21). 
And the Lord Jesus summed up the " essential 
nature " of the world in three words, " Me it hateth " 
(John vii. 7). 

Or, if the essential nature of men of these times is 
love, it is in the sense stated in 2 Tim. iii. 2-4, namely, 
that men are lovers of their own selves, lovers of 
money, and lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God. 

The statement that " Humanism is our greatest 
word, 1 ' and that " the phenomenal world of man " is 
" the greatest fact that we know, 11 exalts man and his 
world to the highest place. God has magnified His 
word above all His Name (Ps. cxxxviii. 2) ; but man 
has now a greater word in "Humanism"; and the 
work of God in creation, and the mediatorial work of 
Christ Jesus in Redemption and Reconciliation by the 
Blood of His Cross, must now (if these be facts at all) 
take a subordinate place to that which is " the greatest 
fact we know," namely, the " world of man." 

But against this there are some who, though they 
be persons accounted of no importance in the " world of 
man," can yet say " the phenomenal world of man " is 
not the greatest fact that we know. ' "We know that 
the Son of God is come, and hath given US an under- 



110 NEW THEOLOGIES 

standing, that we may KNOW HIM THAT is TRUE IT 
(1 John v. 20). 

The " world of man,"" then, comes into the central 
place of the New Theology of New England. That 
world of gigantic industrial projects and achievements, 
which awe the imagination of Man, its creator, and 
impel him to the worship of himself as divine ; that 
world which is the enemy of God and the hater and 
murderer of Christ, becomes the centre of a religious 
system, supported and extolled by the preachers it so 
liberally patronizes. We thus find ourselves again at 
the confluence of the two great currents of Business 
and Religion, and see all things preparing for that 
prodigy which is to result from this fusion of abomina- 
tions. 

And Dr. Gordon fittingly concludes his article in 
these notable words : 

" Let us, so says Humanism, hold to the reality 
and worth of man's world, and use it as our surest 
instrument in our endeavour to ascertain the 
character of the Eternal." 

Not so spoke the New England Theology of bygone 
days. Knowledge of the Father, according to that 
teaching, was to be had only through the Son. The 
words of the Lord Jesus Christ were taken to be con- 
clusive as to that. " I am the Way. No man cometh 
unto the Father, BUT BY ME." " He that hath seen Me 



WHOSE VOICE IS THIS? Ill 

hath seen the Father." " Believe Me that I am in the 
Father and the Father in Me" (John xiv. 6, 9, 11). 
" Neither knoweth any man the Father save the Son, and 
he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him " (Matt. xi. 
27). And concerning " the world of man " to which 
the New Theology refers us for knowledge of God, 
Christ said, " If the world hate you, ye know that it 
hated Me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, 
the world would love his own : but because ye are not 
of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, 
therefore the world hateth you" (John xv, 18, 19). 

But the New Theology sets aside the revelation 
which God has given of Himself in the Incarnate 
Word and in the Written Word, and proclaims that 
the surest instrument we have for ascertaining His 
character is " man^s world." It calls upon men to 
hold fast to that which God has judged, and which He 
will utterly destroy. Those who follow this voice are 
not the sheep of the Good Shepherd ; " for they know 
His voice. And a stranger will they not follow, but 
will flee from him : for they know not the voice of 
strangers " (John x. 4, 5). 

Whose voice then is it ? They who truly know God 
through believing His Word will instantly recognize in 
this exhortation that other voice to which the mother 
of human kind hearkened, and by means of which 
man was lured into the path of destruction. With 
what infinite subtlety has this masterpiece of deception 



NEW THEOLOGIES 

been prepared ! Surely we have here the very " depths 
of Satan " (Rev. ii. 24). For we must admit that the 
character of the workman may be, to some extent at 
least, ascertained from the study of his work ; and God 
Himself tells us that His invisible things, even His 
eternal power and Godhead, are to be clearly seen 
from the creation of the world, being understood by 
the things that are made (Rom. i. 20). The " pheno- 
menal world of man" may, therefore, be indeed 
scrutinized for the purpose of ascertaining the character 
of the power that is back of it ; but the power back 
of it is not the eternal power and Godhead of the 
Almighty God, but that of the prince of the power of 
the air, who is spoken of in Ephesians ii. 2, where we 
read that we all in time past walked "according to 
the course of this world, according to the prince of 
the power of the air, the Spirit that now works in the 
children of disobedience." But unhappily the people 
have not been taught the important truth that Satan 
is the prince (apyyvv, i.e. ruler or governor) of this world, 
and the god of this age. On the contrary, they have 
been generally taught that God is the instigator of the 
"career of humanity," and that He is aiding and 
admiring the progress of man's wonderful civilization. 
Thus, in their ignorance of the truth which the Bible 
so clearly states, they are exposed to the danger of 
heeding and following such an exhortation as that 
quoted above. Those who follow that exhortation 



A RELIGIOUS UPHEAVAL 113 

would indeed be led to the god of this world ; and 
it has been the design of that mighty being since 
the creation of man to attach the latter to him- 
self. 

Two voices out of the realm of the unseen speak to 
humanity. One voice says, "Love not the world, 
neither the things that are in the world. If any man 
love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 
For all that is in the world is not of the Father, but is 
of the world. And the world passeth away and the 
lust thereof" (1 John ii. 15-17). The other voice says, 
" Let us hold to the reality and worth of man's world, 
and use it as our surest instrument in our endeavour to 
ascertain the character of the Eternal."" 

We need only put these sayings side by side in 
order to make it clear to all who are not hopelessly 
deceived, that if one saying is the voice of God, the 
other is that of Satan. 

In dwelling at this length upon Dr. Gordon's dis- 
course, we have not attached undue importance to it ; 
for its significance does not proceed wholly from the 
prominence of its author, or the prominence of the 
pulpit occupied by him, but mainly from the fact that 
it affords a good indication of the profound change 
which has taken place in the religious thought, not of 
New England merely, but of a much wider area, and 
an indication also of the complacency with which that 



114 NEW THEOLOGIES 

change is viewed by the religious multitude, and by 
those from whom the latter take their opinions. It 
shows, moreover, that the new theological system, which 
has already, to a great extent, replaced the old New 
England Theology, corresponds in its essential features 
with the Ecclesiastical Commercialism described in 
prophecy as the culmination of the unrestrained (I.e. 
democratic) activities of mankind. 

With all that Dr. Gordon says touching the nature 
and extent of the change that has taken place, the 
present writer is in substantial accord. Dr. Gordon 
has not overstated the magnitude of the event. But 
the writer takes issue with Dr. Gordon as to the 
character and result of the change. Dr. Gordon calls 
it " progress." The writer calls it " apostasy."" 

"LOOKING FOR THE GENIUS " 

But the great system, religious industrialism, or 
" Humanism," of which Dr. Gordon is one of the 
heralds, will require a leader capable of grasping its 
huge and complicated affairs ; and so it is quite fitting 
that another article, in the same periodical from which 
we have so extensively quoted, should voice the general 
expectancy which exists in many quarters, of the 
coming of the great genius, the " Superman." We 
should not forget that the world has its hope as the 
Christian has his. And the world's hope is well 
founded, for Christ not only said, " I will come again," 



LOOKING FOR THE GENIUS 115 

but He also said, " Another shall come in his own 
name." 

We quote the concluding words of this second 
article, as follows : 

"And we still wait for THE GENIUS who shall 
state our fundamental faith in accordance with 
that insight which the modern man has gained." 
And they who are waiting for the genius shall not 
wait in vain. The genius will surely come, and his 
statement of faith will be one to which all that dwell 
upon the earth will give heed whose names are not 
written in the book of life of the slain Lamb. 

"Here is wisdom. Let him that hath under- 
standing count the number of the beast ; for it is 
the number of Man." 

" MODERNISM " OR ADVANCED THEOLOGY 
IN THE CHURCH OF ROME 

Already we have seen phenomena which, if their 
significance were fully grasped, would be startling. 
We have seen ancient systems, which seemed to have 
settled down to a condition of permanent lethargy and 
stagnation, suddenly stirring themselves and exchanging 
the condition of rest for one of motion. Beholding 
these strange events, a judicious and competent observer 
(Dr. Broda) declared that " never before in the history 
of mankind have the forces of religion suffered so great 



116 NEW THEOLOGIES 

a convulsion " ; and he speaks of this general uprising 
as " the religious crisis through which all the civilized 
races are now passing." 

But not only is this general stirring a new and 
unprecedented thing ; but, stranger still, we have seen 
that the moving bodies (so far as we have examined 
them) are actuated by a common impulse, impelled by 
common ideals, and are advancing towards a common 
destination. 

Let us look now in quite another section of the great 
religious field; namely, to the large and important 
domain occupied by Roman Catholicism. 

Those who pay any attention at all to current 
events (and the number of these is not great) have 
become fairly familiar with the headway which 
Rationalism (" the leaven of the Sadducees," who were 
the rationalists of Christ's day 1 ) has made in the 
various Protestant denominations, and as the result 
of which a large number of the theological seminaries 
have come into the hands of those who deny the 
essentials of the Christian faith. But the affairs of the 
Church of Rome are managed more discreetly, insomuch 
that its dissensions and other domestic troubles are in 
large measure guarded from outsiders, and such here- 
tical movements as may spring up within it do not 
come prominently, if at all, into public notice. 

But there is at the present time a movement in 
1 Acts xxiii. 8. 



A SENSATIONAL MOVEMENT 117 

progress within the domain of the Church of Rome, a 
movement solely of Romanists who have no thought 
whatever of separating from their Church, and which 
is so formidable, so portentous, so radical in its aims, 
and is gathering strength and boldness at so prodigious 
a rate, that its existence cannot be concealed. The 
movement, indeed, is one of the sensations of the times, 
there having been, in all the long and varied career of 
that great ecclesiasticism, nothing in the faintest degree 
resembling it. 

This movement is such as to have shaken to its very 
centre the system in which it is taking place. It seems 
not to be possible to expel from the fold those who are 
participating in it ; but the movement has called forth 
the thunders of the Vatican in the form of an Ency- 
clical letter, for which it would be difficult to find an 
equal in length, in weightiness of subject-matter, and in 
the vehemence and extremity of the denunciatory 
language employed in it. Yet the movement is so 
strong, self-confident, and defiant, that its leaders dare 
to publish the Pope's Encyclical as an " appendix " to 
a volume in which they set forth their own principles 
and purposes. This movement is called " Modernism," 
and the name is an indication of its character. 

If the movement were wholly detached and entirely 
unrelated to any other of the current movements, it 
would still be of great interest and importance. But 
what lends it interest of a surpassing character is the 



118 NEW THEOLOGIES 

fact that its essential principles and avowed purposes 
are identical in substance with those of the other 
great movements of the day, with which it has no 
apparent connection, and that it is hence a movement 
designed to carry the Church of Rome bodily in the 
direction of that very commercial ecclesiasticism which 
is the subject of our present investigation. 

Nor would this result be so difficult of accomplishment 
as might at first sight appear. The aim of the Church 
of Rome has always been temporal power and authority. 
It is already a political ecclesiasticism, aspiring to 
primacy in all the affairs, secular, domestic, and 
religious of all mankind. It has, moreover, a head 
to whom unique authority and power are ascribed. 
In fact, the form and machinery for the great Con- 
solidation of the end-times are already in existence. 
What stand chiefly in the way of applying these ex- 
ternals to the fulfilment of the dream of " the modern 
man," are certain doctrines remnants or distortions 
of the faith once delivered unto the saints which 
are still insisted upon as essential features of the creed 
of Romanism. These must be removed before the 
Church of Rome is ready for a part in the formation of 
the great Religious Syndicate ; and it is precisely for 
this, that is to say, for the removal of the obstructing 
doctrines, that the movement called " Modernism " has 
been inaugurated. This is not a matter of inference 
on our part, for the Modernists plainly and definitely 



THE ANCIENT SYSTEM SHAKEN 119 

state their purpose, as we shall presently see. They 
could, of course, go outside the Church of Rome and 
be entirely free to hold and preach their doctrines that 
is, the doctrines of "the modern man.' 11 But that 
would not accomplish their avowed purpose, for which 
it is absolutely necessary that they should remain in 
"the Church"; so in the Church they propose to 
remain. 

There is, therefore, nothing transpiring at the 
present day which is more significant of the drift of 
the times, or which speaks more solemnly and clearly 
of the approaching convulsion which is to remove all 
the things that can be shaken (Heb. xii. 27), than this 
extraordinary movement within the bosom of the Church 
of Rome. It is startling indeed to find in that quarter 
the new ideas of Democracy, the Supremacy of Human 
Reason, the Solidarity of Mankind (embracing those with- 
out " the Church " as well as those within) ; to find the 
authority of "Science" exalted above the Word of 
God ; and to find this group of ideas gathering force to 
an extent that threatens to sweep that ancient system 
(i.e. Romanism) away from the seemingly secure moor- 
ings which have attached it for so many centuries to 
scholasticism and the old traditions. 

The book from which we will quote in order to show 
the nature and purposes of this movement, is entitled 
The Programme of' Modernism, written originally in 
Italian, and translated into English by " Father " 



120 NEW THEOLOGIES 

Tyrrell, an English priest, and one of the prominent 
leaders of the movement. 

The authors refer at the outset (p. 5) to " the ideals 
which govern the activity of THE WORLD to-day, and 
which are Christian in substance." The Modernists, 
therefore, start with a "world" whose controlling 
ideals are in substance " Christian." It would seem 
that no greater abuse of the word "Christian" were 
possible than to apply it to the ideals which govern the 
activity of the world to-day, which activity finds its 
outlet almost exclusively in the pursuit of wealth and 
pleasure. But the significance of this statement lies in 
its association of religion and business, which are to be 
harmonized and unified in the coming Consolidation of 
human interests. 

Concerning the old foundations of the Christian 
faith the Modernists are very explicit, saying : 

"The pretended bases of faith have proved 
themselves rotten beyond cure." 

The meaning of this admits of no doubt ; and, 
coming from Romanists, it is equivalent to saying that 
the Bible and Church tradition (these being the bases 
of the faith of Rome) have proved themselves rotten 
beyond cure. 

The reader will recall that this is the starting-point 
of the New Theology, namely, the discovery that the 
old foundations are unable to sustain an edifice of 
faith adapted to the needs of "the modern man," 



NEW FOUNDATIONS 

necessitating a movement away from the old position 
to a new basis. 

In this connection it is instructive to recall that the 
word " apostasy " (which is the original Greek word 
translated " a falling away " in 2 Thess. ii. 3, and which 
designates the event that is to come first, just preceding 
the advent of the Man of Sin) means a moving away 
bodily from an original position. What then are we to 
anticipate when we see the professing body, Catholic 
and Protestant, making a movement which its leaders 
themselves describe as an abandonment of the old 
foundations, and a transference of the edifice of faith to 
foundations entirely new, and laid by the hands of 
Man himself? 

Again, the question, " If the foundations be destroyed, 
what can the righteous do ? " (Ps. xi. 3) comes to mind. 
But this event, which would reduce the righteous to 
utter helplessness and dismay, causes no more con- 
cern to the Modernists than to the New Theology ; 
for the former describe their movement as an attempt 
to transfer the rational defence of faith from the 
" tottering basis " on which it has heretofore rested, to 
a more secure foundation (p. 16). 

The relation of the Modernists to the Higher Criticism 
is likewise clearly stated by themselves. They say, " We 
avow ourselves critics pure and simple " (p. 17) ; and 
they laud the work of the "illustrious critics" and 
accept without qualification " the assured results of 



122 NEW THEOLOGIES 

criticism." They refer also to "Dr. Charles Briggs, 
the illustrious critic, well known for his Catholic 
tendencies. 11 (Dr. Briggs owes his notoriety to the 
circumstances that he was, after trial, expelled from 
one large Protestant denomination for heresy, and was 
very promptly received and made a minister in another 
large Protestant denomination, where he is still dis- 
seminating his views.) 

The Modernists also pay deference to " Science " as 
the real source of light and truth, saying : 

" We Modernists cannot in conscience withdraw 
ourselves from the light of truth, and put ourselves 
in harsh opposition to science and its leaders" 
(p. 33). 

But this belongs to the new foundations upon which 
the Modernists propose to build, and before considering 
these we should first note some of the faults which 
they have discovered in the old foundations, particu- 
larly the Bible. Of that they say : 

" As the words are not directly from God, so 
neither are the ideas, since they often clash one 
with another. The whole book, words and ideas 
alike, is the work of man, without thereby ceasing 
to be wholly, as to both words and ideas a dis- 
tinction which we can set aside as unknown to 
antiquity the work of God " (p. 37). 
Concerning the origin of the Old Testament they 
say: 



WHAT "CRITICISM" HAS DONE 123 

"The children of Israel were on the same 
religious level as the other nations" (p. 41). 

Jehovah of Hosts was, therefore, no more than 
Baal, Molech, Remphan, or Ashtoreth. According to 
the Modernists, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and 
of Jacob did not choose those patriarchs and their 
descendants to be to Himself a peculiar people. He 
did not bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt 
and give them the fiery law amid the thunders of 
Sinai. It is not true that to the Israelites were com- 
mitted the oracles of God, and that unto them 
pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the 
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service 
and the promises, whose are the fathers, and of whom, 
as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all 
God, blessed for evermore (Rom. ix. 4, 5). 

Nor have the Modernists any greater regard for the 
New Testament than for the Old. They say : 

" Criticism has done for the Gospels what it has 
done for the Pentateuch. 1 ' 

They regard the Gospel by John, for example, as 
being in the nature of an historical romance written 
with a religious purpose. And inasmuch as the writers 
of classical fiction deem it perfectly legitimate to put 
long speeches into the mouths of their characters, such 
as would be presumably appropriate to the personages 
and circumstances portrayed, even so the author of this 
Gospel invented the discourses it contains. Thus they 



124 NEW THEOLOGIES 

speak (p. 46) of the words which the Evangelist John 
has " put into the mouth of John the Baptist." 

Coming to that part of the inspired Word which God 
has communicated to men through His servant Paul, 
they say that the latter 

" had a very complicated and artificial theology of 
his own " (p. 72). 

When, therefore, Paul declared that the Gospel 
message proclaimed by him was not after man, that he 
neither received nor was taught it of men, but by direct 
revelation from Jesus Christ (Gal. i. 11, 12) ; and 
when he solemnly declared, as he said again and again, 
" this we say unto you by the word of the Lord," this 
devoted servant of Christ uttered deliberate lies. 

It follows that, according to Modernism, the whole 
fabric of Christianity has been reared upon the founda- 
tion of the grossest, the most gigantic, and the most 
inexcusable and inexplicable series of falsehoods that 
has ever been fabricated. Indeed, the statements of 
the Bible- writers, which the Modernists and " illustrious 
critics " characterize as falsehoods, constitute a system 
of lies too vast, too complicated, and too void of any- 
thing like the motives which govern human conduct, 
to have been the work of mere men, particularly as 
these men did not work in concert. The premises of 
the Modernists lead logically to the conclusion that the 
foundations of Christianity were not only not the work 
of God, but were the work of a superhuman spirit of 



MODERNIST DOCTRINES 125 

evil. If they believe their own premises, then they 
have stated the case mildly in declaring that the bases 
of the old faith are " rotten beyond cure. 1 ' 

Coming now to the central doctrine of Scripture, the 
Person of the Divine Redeemer, they say : 

"Paul had already speculated as to the pre- 
existence of Christ " (p. 83). 

And they account for the doctrine of the Incarna- 
tion of the Eternal Son of God, by saying that it 
originated some centuries after the life of Jesus Christ, 
and was the product of the " Messianic notion " of the 
Jewish people combined with the " apocalyptic notion " 
of One who was to appear in the clouds, which 
" notions," when transferred to Greek soil, which had 
for centuries been fertilized by the filthy beliefs in 
heroes springing from carnal intercourse between gods 
and human beings, gave rise to the " notion " of a unique 
relation between Christ and the Father. But this is 
so incredibly blasphemous that the doctrine must be 
given in their own words. They say : 

" The Messianic notion of the Son of David, and 
the apocalyptic notion of One who was to appear 
in the clouds, . . . when transferred to Greek soil, 
where parentage between gods and heroes was a 
common belief, opened the road to the notion of 
a unique relation between Christ and the Father, 
and even of an identity of nature "" (p. 84). 
Thus the Modernists set wholly aside the doctrine of 



126 NEW THEOLOGIES 

a Divine Redeemer, made in the likeness of sinful 
flesh, and putting away sin by the sacrifice of Himself, 
and they account for the belief of the saints of all 
ages in the Incarnation of the Son of God by a theory 
so shockingly profane, that it surely seems that to them, 
if to any one, apply those terrible words : " who 
hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath 
counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith He 
was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done de- 
spite to (i.e. insulted) the Spirit of Grace " (Heb. 
x. 29). 

The Modernists sum up the work of the " illustrious 
critics " by saying that 

"Criticism has reconstructed the whole story of 
the evolution of Christianity " (p. 90). 

That the Modernists, in common with the advanced 
theologians of the Protestant sects, regard the human 
reason as the seat of final authority in respect of all 
matters of doctrine, appears at many points in their 
manifesto. For example, they speak of 

" arguments from miracles and prophecies which 
offend rather than impress the modern mind" 
(p. 98). 

Here again we perceive the tacit assumption that the 
test of a doctrine is, not whether or not it be true and 
sufficiently authenticated, but whether it be regarded 
with favour or with disfavour by the " modern mind." 



A GREAT SPIRITUAL UPHEAVAL 127 

It will also be noted that, according to the Modernists, 
the supernatural elements of Scripture miracles and 
prophecies are offensive to the modern mind, and 
hence must be discarded. 

The reader will readily perceive how necessary it is 
to the carrying out of Satan's programme (which is 
virtually the avowed " Programme of Modernism ") that 
prophecy should be thoroughly discredited and brought 
into contempt. Hence the pains manifested in all the 
literature of these cognate movements to inculcate the 
idea that the " modern mind " regards prophecy with 
contempt and derision. It was thus at the first coming 
of Christ ; for then, as now, the religious leaders, 
through ignorance and contempt for prophecy, fulfilled 
the prophecies which were read by them every Sabbath 
day. As it is recorded : " For they that dwell at 
Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew 
Him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets 
which are read every Sabbath day, they have fulfilled 
them in condemning Him. And though they found 
no cause of death in Him, yet desired they Pilate that 
He should be slain " (Acts xiii. 27, 28). 

The Modernists recognize that their movement is 
part of a great spiritual upheaval which is taking place 
throughout the Christianized countries of the world 
(and which, as we have seen, is not confined to them). 
They say : 

" Undoubtedly a crisis has arisen in the very 



128 NEW THEOLOGIES 

X 

centre of Catholic thought " (p. 129). " A great 

spiritual crisis, which did not begin to-day, but 

has to-day reached its culminating intensity, 

troubles all the religious bodies of Europe 

Catholicism, Lutheranism, Anglicanism." 

The idea of a great crisis, and a general movement 

to take up new religious ground, is a very captivating 

and stimulating idea; and the terms in which the 

advanced (and advancing) theologians refer to it, 

indicate the enthusiasm it has the power to arouse. It 

is the cry of " Excelsior ! " to which many will respond 

who care neither for the things that are behind, nor 

the things that are before, but whose blood is stirred, 

and whose fleshly zeal is quickened, by the rallying cry 

of any forward movement wherein the masses take 

part. 

We have now heard the reasons which the Modern- 
ists give for abandoning the old bases of faith, and 
for stigmatizing them as "rotten beyond cure 11 ; and 
we look next with deep interest to the results they are 
setting out to accomplish. 

As to this, the " Programme of Modernism " is very 
definite and explicit. The standards they have adopted 
for the reformed Catholicism, for which they are 
labouring, are those of the MODERN WORLD. Nothing 
less, or other, than the complete amalgamation and 
unification of the Church and World is the object of 



CATCHING SIGHT OF THE VISION 129 

their hopes and efforts. Full well do they realize that 
a great religious system is to be reared upon the basis 
of the divinity of Humanity, and is to control the 
" titanic industrial energies " of mankind ; and they 
see clearly that, if in this system the Church of Rome 
is to occupy the position of authority and power, it 
must quickly forsake its antiquated doctrines, and 
place itself squarely upon the platform of Humanism. 
For this they toil and suffer, being well content, in 
such a cause, to incur the frown of the Church 
authorities, with all its disagreeable consequences. 
They have caught the vision of the great Unification, 
and it has fired their hearts with an unquenchable 
enthusiasm. That they will press on to its realization, 
with ranks constantly augmented by other hosts who 
have been aroused by the same vision, cannot be 
doubted; for so it is written, and these things must 
needs come to pass* The voice of Him who sees the 
end from the beginning has said : " Behold, I have told 
you before.' 1 

Speaking of the aspirations, ideals, and language oi 
the " modern world," with its great commercial enter- 
prises, grounded upon faith in the powers of man, and 
ruled by the principle of consolidation, the Modernists 
say: 

" We have set to work to master that language, 
to grasp those ideals, (in order) to complete the 
reconciliation of the old Catholic tradition with 



130 NEW THEOLOGIES 

the new thought and new social aspirations. 
Through a living, and not merely local, contact 
with the world in which we dwell, we have come to 
dream of a GREAT UNIFICATION " (p. 136). 
The great system of the end is now so close at hand, 
that men of every nation, class of life, and religious 
preconceptions, are catching a view of it, and are filled 
with wonder and admiration at the grandeur and 
magnificence of the sight. The Modernists under- 
stand perfectly the source of this inspiration. It comes, 
as they plainly say, from the World in which they 
dwell, and they have obtained it by a living" instead 
of merely a local contact with it. This thrilling and 
inspiring vision is not for those who set their affections 
on things above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand 
of God ; it is not for those who have died with Him to 
the world and its things, and whose life is hid with 
Christ in God (Col. iii. 2, 3). It is for those whose 
life is in the world, who boast of a living" contact with 
it, and whose affections are set on things below " where 
Satan's throne is" (Rev. ii. 13). It is, say the 
Modernists, through a living contact with " the world 
in which we dwell.' 1 '' And thus is being fulfilled that 
which was written by the seer of Patmos when he 
beheld, eighteen centuries ago, the symbolic vision of 
the great Unification, and when, in speaking of its 
animating spirit, he said : " And all that dwell 
upon the earth shall worship him (the beast), 



THE "TASK" OF THE MODERNISTS 131 

whose names are not written in the book of life 
of the slain Lamb." "And he causeth the earth 
and them that dwell therein to worship the 
first beast." "And he deceiveth them that dwell 
on the earth by means of those miracles which he 
had power to do " (Rev. xiii. 8, 12, 14). 

And furthermore, the Modernists are fully imbued 
with the spirit of the age, in that they look to the 
power of man himself to bring about this great 
unification of the religious and industrial affairs of all 
mankind, in identifying themselves with the "demo- 
cratic movement," and in proposing to found the new 
edifice upon the basis of contemporary science and 
philosophy. They say : 

"We have girt ourselves for the task of 
bringing the religious experience of Christianity 
into line with the data of contemporary science 
and philosophy, and of emphasizing the religious 
and Christian elements that go to the constitution 
of the democratic movement " (p. 136). 
Finally, they truly speak of " contemporary civiliza- 
tion " as being " saturated with the scientific spirit and 
eager with democratic aspirations," and confidently 
predict the " inevitable ascendancy of the democracy." 
The "great Unification," whatever its name may 
be, is indeed inevitable ; and the principles of Demo- 
cracy are undoubtedly among the potent factors that 
are operating to bring it into existence. Thus, 



132 NEW THEOLOGIES 

whichever of the great movements of the day we 
may follow, it brings us at the end of its course to 
the exaltation of Man to the supreme place, and to 
the consolidation into one colossal system of all the 
interests and affairs of humanity. 

Nebuchadnezzar, the great head of the greatest world- 
power, had a dream of " a great image, whose brightness 
was excellent : and the form thereof was terrible " (Dan. 
ii. 31). Probably it was in an attempt to represent 
this vision that the king made an image of gold, and 
set it up in the plain of Dura, and called upon all them 
that dwell upon the earth, of all "peoples, nations, 
and languages," to fall down and worship the golden 
image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up 
(Dan. iii. 1-5). 

And now, in the latter days, the Modernists (both 
within the Church of Rome and without it) are coming 
to dream of a great image whose form is imposing and 
awe-inspiring, and whose brightness is excellent. We 
cannot doubt that there is a terrible reality corre- 
sponding to this dream, and which will surely form a 
dominating part of the "religious experience" of all 
those who dwell upon the earth ; for they will be com- 
pelled to worship the image of the beast. It likewise 
will be an image of gold, since money is the form 
of the chief idol to which the people of this idolatrous 
age are bowing ; and it will in some way greatly surpass 
the image set up in the plain of Dura, for, while the 



THE POPE VERSUS MODERNISM 133 

number of the latter was sixty and six, the number of 
its antitype will be six hundred and sixty and six. 1 

" Here is wisdom. Let him that hath under- 
standing count the number of the beast." 
Those who fail to count the number accurately, and 
to perceive that it is the number of Man, will doubtless 
be among the company of those who will worship the 
beast and his image, and will have his mark in their 
right hands or in their foreheads. 

THE POPE'S "ENCYCLICAL" ON 
MODERNISM 

The purpose of Modernism, and the formidable 
character of the movement, can best be learned by 
reference to the Encyclical letter which the present 
occupant of the Papal chair has issued against it. This 
remarkable document occupies more than one hundred 
closely printed octavo pages. In perusing the quota- 
tions which follow, the reader must remember that 
these scorching and blistering words of invective and 
denunciation are not directed against heretics or 
opponents of the Roman Catholic Church, but against 
members of its hierarchy, who are actively ministering 
at its altars and preaching to its people. And in 

1 " Nebuchadnezzar the King made an IMAGE OF GOLD, 
whose height was THREESCORE cubits, and the breadth 
thereof six cubits" (Dan. iii. 1). 



134 NEW THEOLOGIES 

order to measure the defiance and self-confidence of the 
Modernists, the reader should also remember that this 
Encyclical is published by the Modernists themselves as 
an appendix to the " Programme of Modernism," from 
which the foregoing quotations have been taken. 

Furthermore, the reader will notice that the language 
employed by the Pope to characterize the doctrines 
and aims of Modernism is not less severe, but rather 
more so, than that used by the present writer, who, 
therefore, cannot be justly accused of exaggerating 
the significance of this new, but powerful, movement. 

The Pope, at the beginning of the document, calls 
attention to the 

"notable increase in the number of the enemies 

of the Cross of Christ, who, by arts entirely new 

and full of deceit, are striving to destroy the vital 

energy of the Church " ; and who " assail all that 

is most sacred in the work of Christ, not sparing 

even the Person of the Divine Redeemer, whom, 

with sacrilegious audacity, they degrade to the 

condition of a simple and ordinary man."" 

These, surely, are the terms of indignation which 

an Evangelical Christian would use to describe the 

purposes of the Modernists. 

The Pope, in scathing language, but with singular 
lucidity, describes the method employed by the 
Modernists, and other schools of Rationalists and 
Higher Critics, in arriving at their "assured results." 



THE "HIGHER CRITICAL" METHOD 135 

Their method is to decide as to the truthfulness of 
any statement of Scripture, and particularly of any 
act or words attributed therein to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, by considering what they themselves would 
have been likely to do or say under similar 
circumstances. 

There is not, and never has been, any evidence to 
support the conclusions of the Higher Critics. All they 
have to go upon is the text of the sacred writings itself. 
It is purely by the exercise of their own intuitive per- 
ceptions that they are enabled to split up a book of 
Scripture into numerous fragments, to assign various 
bits of the dismembered whole to different " sources," 
to say whether a given passage is or is not " genuine," 
to pass upon its authorship, and to give the approxi- 
mate date at which it was written. It is, of course, 
impossible for an outsider to bring these "results" 
to any test, for his inability to recognize their 
validity is, according to higher critical standards, 
conclusive evidence that he is destitute of the in- 
tuitive powers which the critics employ in reaching 
them. Moreover, there is no test to which they can 
be brought. The evidence on which they rest cannot 
be examined, for they do not rest on evidence. Hence 
it is at the peril of one's reputation for both scholar- 
ship and mental acumen, and of being disapproved as 
hopelessly behind the science of the age, that one dares 
to question any of these "results." This risk is too 



136 NEW THEOLOGIES 

great for many of the present generation of theologians 
(particularly its younger members) to incur; and in 
this way the ranks of the higher critics are recruited. 
The Pope thus describes their method : 

"Their method is to put themselves into the 
position and person of Christ, and then to 
attribute to Him what they would have done 
under like circumstances. They proclaim that 
Christ was not God, and never did anything 
Divine ; and that, as man, He did and said only 
what they, judging from the time in which He 
lived, consider that He ought to have said and 
done "(p. 199). 
And the Pope speaks of 

" Their boundless effrontery, by which, if one of 
them makes any utterance, the others applaud 
him in chorus, proclaiming that science has made 
another step forward ; while if an outsider should 
desire to inspect the new discovery for himself, 
they form a coalition against him. He who 
denies is decried as one who is ignorant ; and he 
who embraces and defends it has all their praise " 
(p. 205). 

"The domineering overbearance of those who 
teach the errors, and the thoughtless compliance 
of the more shallow minds who assent to them, 
create a corrupted atmosphere which penetrates 
everywhere, and carries infection with it " (p. 205). 



MODERNISM AND HUMANISM 137 

"They are ready to admit, nay to proclaim, 
that Christ Himself manifestly erred in deter- 
mining the time when the Kingdom of God was 
to take place." 

Evidently the Pope classes the Modernists among 
those of whom the Apostle Peter spoke in saying : 
" Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last 
days scoffers, walking after their own lusts (or 
inclinations), and saying, Where is the promise of 
His coming ? for since the fathers fell asleep, all 
things continue as they were from the beginning of 
the creation " (2 Pet. iii. 3, 4). 

The Pope calls particular attention to that pro- 
minent doctrine of Modernism which declares that, 
in every man, believer and unbeliever alike, is the 
germ of the Christ-nature. This, as we have seen, 
is the essence of the new Religion which has sprung 
up simultaneously in so many different quarters, and 
under different names, but which is best described 
as " Humanism," the attribution to man of the 
Divine nature. On this point he says : 

"They would show to the non-believer, as 
hidden in himself, the very germ which Christ 
had in His consciousness, and which He transmitted 
to mankind "(p. 211). 

We see from this statement that Mr. R. J. 
Campbell was fully justified in claiming that Modern- 
ism is in substance the same movement in the Church 
10 



138 NEW THEOLOGIES 

of Rome which is, outside that system, known as 
the New Theology. 

As to what necessarily follows from the teaching 
of the Modernists, the Pope says: 

" The rigorous conclusion from this is the iden- 
tity of man with God, which means Pantheism." 

It would be more accurate to say that the identi- 
fication of man with God means Humanism ; although 
many (but not all) forms of Humanism do, indeed, 
identify the universe also with God, which is 
Pantheism. 

We thus see, both from our own examination, and 
from the Pope's thorough study and lucid description 
of the movement known as Modernism, that its 
essential principle is identical with that of the new 
theologies, and of infidel Socialism. 

Thus the attention of the world is being insistently 
called to a platform, already in process of construction, 
and rapidly nearing completion, whereupon New 
Theology, infidel Socialism, Humanism of all varieties, 
and Modernised Romanism, may stand shoulder to 
shoulder, and may enjoy congenial fellowship, while 
striving for that great ideal the Unification of 
Humanity through the exercise of its own inherent 
powers. 

As to the effect of Modernism, the Pope has this 
to say : 



THE "SYNTHESIS OF ALL HERESIES" 139 

" Their system means the destruction, not only 
of the Catholic religion alone, but of all 
religion." 

This is undoubtedly true in the sense intended, 
for by " religion " the Pope means Christianity ; 
but, to be more precise, the effect of the system will 
be, not to destroy all religion, but rather to establish 
an universal Religion, embracing the secular as well 
as the spiritual interests of humanity, and exercising 
authority over all human beings and in respect of all 
human affairs. 

Or, in other words, the Modernists have "girt 
themselves for the task " of bringing into existence 
precisely that sort of a Consolidation as is pictured 
in the 13th chapter of Revelation, in which task 
they are being effectively aided by nearly all dis- 
cernible human activities, and, most effectively of all, 
by the mighty spirit that now energizes in the sons of 
disobedience (Eph. ii. 2). 

The Pope pronounces his judgment upon the whole 
system of Modernism in these notable and weighty 
words : 

"And now, with our eyes fixed on the whole 
system, no one will be surprised that we should 
define it as the SYNTHESIS OF ALL HERESIES." 
That is to say, all heresies combined into one 
system. 

The Protestant reader, having some idea of the 



140 NEW THEOLOGIES 

power of the Pope over members of the Catholic 
hierarchy, and of the doctrine of papal infallibility, 
may well ask whether such a scorching blast as this 
from the Vatican will not instantly wither Modernism 
to its very roots, and scatter its fragments like chaff' 
to the four quarters of the earth. The answer is, 
that it will have no such effect. This tremendous 
papal utterance is treated by the Modernists as a 
mere criticism upon their aims and doctrines, and as 
a comment so harmless that they can, without pre- 
judice to the task for which they have girt themselves, 
print and circulate it in various languages. Will 
the Encyclical arrest Modernism ? On the contrary, 
it will simply test and bring into display the strength 
of that movement. It may curb the outward activities 
of the Modernists for a season ; but their view of 
the matter is that the present Pope is an accident 
"a parenthesis, 11 as he has been styled and when 
his little interval of power is ended, then the move- 
ment will proceed with increased vigour and accelerated 
pace. And, perhaps, the next Pope may be a Modern- 
ist himself! Stranger things have happened in Rome. 



MR. NEWMAN SMYTHE'S VISION 141 

"THE COMING CATHOLICISM" 

Once more we change our point of view, in order 
to take a look at another movement of thought, 
which, after all, is not a different movement, as will 
be speedily seen, but merely a phase of the movement 
we have been already considering. This phase of the 
present drift of things has for its prophet and historian, 
Rev. Newman Smythe of New Haven, a Protestant 
clergyman. 

Mr. Smythe's "Coming Catholicism" is not that 
ancient ecclesiastical system known as Roman Catholi- 
cism. The latter is not in reality catholic, whereas 
the Catholicism which Mr. Smythe's prophetic gaze 
has descried is a religious system which shall be really 
universal. It will command the assent of all mankind, 
and be the religion of a consolidated humanity. 

Mr. Smythe discerns unmistakable signs of the 
coming of this great ecclesiastical system, and he 
gives excellent reasons for the predictions he makes. 
The reader will probably be prepared to accept Mr. 
Smythe's main conclusion, particularly when he learns 
that the " Coming Catholicism " is to be a grand 
combination of Business and Religion, that its religious 
framework is to be something worthy of "a world of 
titanic industrial forces" and that the principle which 
stimulates the movement is the exaltation of Man, by 
means of his own achievements, to the place of God. 



142 NEW THEOLOGIES 

The full title of the book from which we will now 
present extracts is " Passing Protestantism and Coming 
Catholicism" 

It will be startling to some readers to find a 
Protestant clergyman calmly directing attention to the 
"passing of Protestantism," just as it will startle 
others to find the Pope of Rome denouncing a strictly 
Romanist movement as the " synthesis of all heresies." 
But we are living in a day of strange events; and 
others yet more strange are coming swiftly. 

The author of " Coming Catholicism " first pro- 
poses the important questions: "What can Christi- 
anity now do in the world?" "What shall be 
the religious life of the people ? " What is the 
prospect for "a reunited Christianity"? And we 
may briefly anticipate his detailed answers to these 
questions by saying that Mr. Smythe fully shares the 
views of Mr. Campbell, Dr. Gordon, and the 
Modernists, to the effect that the prospects of "a 
reunited Christianity " are excellent, and that those 
prospects are to be realized by the establishment of 
a religious system from which Christ Himself shall be 
wholly excluded, along with everything which heretofore 
has been regarded as distinctively " Christian." 

Mr. Smythe calls attention at the outset to the unusual 
religious activity which has been observable for some 
years past, and which has resulted in the disintegration 
of systems that have, for a long time, been fairly 



THE "PASSING" OF PROTESTANTISM 143 

stable in doctrine and observances. He says that " it 
has of late years been the breaking up rather than the 
making of creeds"; and he makes the very important 
statement that 

" there are to be discerned signs of the passing of 
the Protestant age of history " (p. 8). 
In this connection the author notes, and very clearly 
sets forth, some of the signs which justify the foregoing 
statement, such as 

"the relaxation of authority in our Protestant 

Churches." "Religion has lost authority in the 

family life." He notes "The weakening of 

religious restraints among the children of 

Protestants " ; whereas " Romanism speaks with 

authority to the whole family " (p. 15). 

We cannot quote extensively from this part of the 

book ; but the foregoing passages will suffice to show 

that Mr. Smythe has examined the surface conditions of 

our times to good purpose. 

The immediate result of this, he thinks, is that people 
" may now seek after new cults, or remain content 
with feeling themselves to be religious in general, 
with no beliefs in particular." 

But such condition could only be a transition stage. 
Such a general breaking up of long-existing systems 
must be the preparation for a change of some unusual 
sort. And Mr. Smythe is evidently impressed with the 
very significant fact that this disintegration of ecclesi- 



144 NEW THEOLOGIES 

astical systems is accompanied by a revolt against the 
existing economic system, and also by many and strik- 
ing indications of the coming of a NEW SOCIAL ORDER. 

Mr. Smythe is only one of many observers who note 
the breaking up of existing religious systems, and the 
relaxation of the hold of the churches and their 
ministers upon the consciences, and even upon the 
interest and attention, of the people. The evidences 
of this disintegration are so pronounced as to alarm 
even the editor of one of the popular American 
magazines, who, confounding (as most people do) the 
ecclesiastical institutions of this Sardis state of the 
Church which have a name that they live but are 
dead (Rev. iii. 1) with real " Christianity," expresses 
the fear that " Christianity is dying, and dying fast." 
This editor, in order to aid in averting what he 
regards as a threatened calamity, has procured the 
assistance of a minister well known on both sides of 
the Atlantic, Dr. Charles H. Aked, giving to the latter 
a commission to write a series of articles under the signi- 
ficant title of " The Salvation of Christianity." These 
articles are now^appearing at the rate of one a month. 
The most interesting point about them is the fact that 
what Dr. Aked, and those who share his views, regard 
as "Christianity," is deemed by them to be now in 
such a bad case as to require special efforts for its 
" Salvation." But, happily, what Dr. Aked regards as 
" Christianity " is something quite different from true 



A DISMAL PROSPECT 145 

Christianity, and is, in fact, not worth saving. If it 
were, Dr. Aked's remedy would certainly hasten its 
demise, for that remedy consists, so far as disclosed, 
mainly in repudiating every important item of Christian 
doctrine. This popular preacher declares that "the 
old motives and sanctions and prohibitions have lost 
their hold : the new are not sufficiently grasped by 
preachers nor understood by the people." l 

It is true that the old sanctions, etc., have lost their 
hold upon many preachers, though not yet upon all. It 
must also be conceded that the departure from the old 
faith which Dr. Aked, Mr. Campbell, Dr. Gordon, and 
other popular leaders so loudly proclaim, and in which 
they openly rejoice, has made rapid headway in a very 
short time, and seems still to be gathering strength 
and speed. But the matter of chief interest to us at 
this point is, not what these leaders are leading their 
followers away from, or how numerous are the religious 
crowds that are following them, but to what are they 
leading them ? As to this vital matter Dr. Aked has 
nothing definite to tell his hearers. He can only 
inform them that " the old " is gone, and that for " the 
new," they must " wait the larger prophecy, more 
spiritual vision, and virile preaching of the coming days." 

This surely is a dubious and cheerless state in which 
to be left ; for the blind followers of this blind leader 
are not told how long they will have to wait for this 
1 Appleton's Magazine, August 1908. 



146 NEW THEOLOGIES 

" larger prophecy," etc., or whence these misty creatures 
are to come, or what they will be like when they arrive. 

But to return to Rev. Newman Smythe, whose vision is 
decidedly clearer than that of Dr. Aked. The former, 
after noting the process of the decadence and dis- 
integration of Protestantism, now far advanced, turns 
his attention hopefully towards Modernism, and speaks 
approvingly of what he calls the Modernists 1 

"appeal to the Pope for reform and liberty, and for the 
reconciliation of the Church with modern thought." 

Mr. Smythe is fully persuaded that the salvation of 
the " Church " depends upon such radical modification 
of its doctrines and observances as will make it entirely 
satisfactory to " the world. 11 The latter long ago 
recorded its judgment upon Christ, and put that 
judgment into bloody execution. Whatever changes 
have since that day taken place in the world, there has 
been none in respect of its hatred toward Christ and 
toward all who are true to Him and to His teaching. 
Its settled determination may still find apt expression in 
the saying, " We will not have this man to reign over 
us " (Luke xix. 14). But the world is quite willing 
and even eager to arrange a compromise with a Church 
which has abandoned Christ and His doctrine; and 
there are many who think that, upon this condition, 
the world would even submit to be ruled by a religious 
system bearing the name of " Christianity. 11 The 
writer, however, is not of that opinion, for the 



"TITANIC INDUSTRIAL FORCES" 147 

Scriptures indicate that the "Coming Catholicism" 
will not be Christian even in name. 

Mr. Smythe states the case thus : 

" A WORLD of titanic industrial forces is not to 
be ruled by a Christianity divided in its own 
house against itself" (p. 33). 

We call particular attention to these words, because 
they very aptly and forcibly set forth the predominat- 
ing characteristics of the modern world. Its forces 
are "industrial," and their scale is indeed "titanic." 
The imperative need, then, is for a Religion which is 
adapted to a world given over to industrialism on a 
gigantic scale; and the judgment of the best religious 
experts, based upon the sure test of experience, is, that 
the ecclesiastical systems which have hitherto existed, 
Catholic and Protestant, are utterly unsuited to this 
imperative requirement. The requirement, therefore, 
must be met by means of constructive religious work on 
a scale commensurate with the titanic industrial forces 
which the genius of man has brought into operation. 
We have every reason to believe that a need so pressing 
will be met, and that speedily. 

Touching the prospect of there being devised a 
religious system such as the characteristics of the age 
require, Mr. Smythe has much to say. And indeed, when 
one considers what Man has done in the industrial field, 
there seems no reason to doubt that the " spirit of the 
world " (1 Cor. ii. 12) is equal to the evolution of a 



148 NEW THEOLOGIES 

religious and ecclesiastical system which shall meet 
satisfactorily all the requirements of the case. 

Mr. Smythe, in this connection, quotes an Oxford 
lecturer who describes himself as looking for 

"the rise of a new religious order, the greatest 
that the world has known, drawn from all nations 
and all classes, and what seems stranger yet, from 
all Churclies" (p. 36). 

This expectation is well founded. Indeed, one is 
struck by the language in which this seer describes his 
vision. His language resembles (though he, of course, 
was quite unconscious of it) that employed by the seer 
of Patmos : " I saw a beast rise up out of the sea." 
" And power was given him over all kindreds, and 
tongues, and nations ; and all that dwell on the earth 
shall worship him, whose names are not written in the 
book of life of the slain Lamb " (Rev. xiii. 1, 7, 8). 
Mr. Smythe defines the Modernist movement as 
" an endeavour of loyal Catholics to adapt the 
Roman Church to the thought and life of the 
modern world." 

And he says that some Protestant observers who 
are in close touch with it believe it is destined to be 
"the greatest religious movement since the time 
of the Reformation." 

Mr. Smythe is a judicious commentator on current 
events. Although greatly impressed with the vital 
force of Modernism, he does not expect to see the 



MODERNISTS "IN THE STREAM 11 149 

" Programme of Modernism " fully carried out. Nor is 
this needful to the end in view. In a situation where 
there are many bodies moving simultaneously along 
lines which are, in a general way, converging, there are 
likely to be, before the final goal is reached, some 
meetings and coalescences between those bodies that 
are contiguous to each other ; and such occurrences 
would be likely to produce changes in form, mass, and 
name. Such a meeting and coalescence of two bodies 
might seemingly bring their respective movements to 
an end ; but in reality those movements would proceed 
under another form, and possibly with even increased 
momentum. 

Mr. Smythe regards Modernism, not as a finality, but 
as a mediating- movement ; and he accordingly divides 
his treatment of the entire subject into three parts, 
which he, with pleasing alliteration, entitles respectively 
" Passing Protestantism," " Mediating Modernism," and 
" Coming Catholicism." 

Of the origin of Modernism, Mr. Smythe says that it 
" had its early spring in Biblical and historical 
criticism " (p. 55). 

Springing from such a source, we should know about 
what to expect as to the results and ultimate destiny 
of the movement. 

The Modernists, says Mr. Smythe 

" are in the stream ; they are afloat on the world's 
present thought and life." 



150 NEW THEOLOGIES 

Many such passages emphasize the fact that the 
great value of Modernism, in the eyes of this Protestant 
observer, is its powerful influence in breaking down 
completely the distinction (which has in many quarters 
long ceased to be a reality) between the Church and 
the world, and in bringing about the thorough identi- 
fication of the former with the ideals and aspirations of 
the world and its god. 

Coming to the heart of Modernism, that which 
constitutes the essential doctrine of the Modernists, 
Mr. Smythe makes the following important state- 
ment : 

" They are influenced by one of the profoundest 
and most vitalizing faiths which are now per- 
vading and renewing the Protestant world. In 
its simplicity this is the belief that GOD is IN MAN ; 
that the Divine is present in the thoughts of men, 
to be known in the experience of men." 
We must perforce yield assent to the statement that 
this profound faith (" the depths of Satan ") is indeed 
pervading and transforming the Protestant " world." 
This profound faith is, in fact, simply the essential 
doctrine of Humanism, i.e. the divinity of humanity, 
which has now so often come under our notice, and 
which will be encountered wherever there is perceived, 
in apostate and corrupt Christendom, any manifesta- 
tion of real religious activity. 
Again, Mr. Smythe says : 



A RADICAL ARTICLE OF FAITH 151 

" In this faith in God's manifestation of Himself 

in and through human experience, progressive 

Catholics are certainly in the same stream that has 

vivified and renewed our whole modern theology." 

These statements are very explicit. They stand in 

no need of explanation. If Mr. Smythe has rightly 

observed current events, and has correctly reported 

what he has seen, modern theology as a whole has been 

renewed and quickened by a single article of faith, 

namely, the simple belief that God is in man, and that 

the doings of corrupt humanity (" human experience ") 

are the manifestations of God. 

What is the source of this radical article of faith, and 
upon what authority does it rest ? The assertion of 
man's divinity is made again and again, by this and other 
popular religious writers, and with the utmost assur- 
ance ; but never yet has the present author heard of any 
evidence, or anything even purporting to be evidence, 
being offered in support of it. When the prophets of 
old came with instruction for men, they declared that 
their message was from God. " This we say unto you 
by the word of the Lord," was the sufficient reason 
why the saying should be heeded. But the messages 
which those men brought and which, instead of re- 
ceiving large salaries for bringing them, they themselves 
paid for in persecution, imprisonment, and death 
invariably proclaimed that man, so far from being 
divine, was full of corruption and violence, unrighteous, 



152 NEW THEOLOGIES 

ungodly, under condemnation, had gone out of the 
way ; and that the doings of man, so far from mani- 
festing God, were unequivocally evil in His sight. 
Those messages, purporting to come directly from God 
Himself, so far from announcing that " the Divine is 
present in the thoughts of man, 11 declared explicitly 
that " God is not in all his thoughts " (Ps. x. 4). On 
the contrary, they expressly declared of man that 
" every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was 
only evil continually " (Gen. vi. 5). 

No one will deny that a cardinal doctrine of 
Christianity has always heretofore been that man is by 
nature a sinner, separated by his sin an immeasurable 
distance from God, who is of purer eyes than to 
behold evil, and cannot look on iniquity (Hab. i. 13). 
This doctrine rested for its support upon the Book 
which has always, until within recent times, been re- 
garded among professing Christians as the Word of God. 
There thus existed at least a valid and sufficient reason 
for the acceptance of the doctrine of the corruption of 
human nature. Moreover, it is quite inconceivable 
that a doctrine so utterly repugnant to the natural 
man could have had a human origin. The natural 
disposition of man is to think well of himself and to 
find plausible excuses for his shortcomings ; and man's 
books always present him and his doings in a favour- 
able light. The account which the Bible, in all its 
parts, gives of the nature of man, his character, his 



FREEDOM OF THOUGHT AND OPINION 153 

deeds, his works, and his doom, is one of the character- 
istics which distinguish that book in the clearest way 
from all books of human authorship. But what we 
wish specially to emphasize is that there was (and yet 
remains) a valid and sufficient reason for the doctrine, 
taught by holy men of old, and by the Lord Jesus 
Christ, that man is by his natural birth ungodly, and 
that he needs to be begotten again of the Spirit of 
God, in order even to see the Kingdom of God. 

On the other hand, the modern doctrine concerning 
man, which is just the reverse of the doctrine of the 
Bible, is promulgated, and is received in many quarters, 
without in any case the faintest semblance of sup- 
porting proof, without citation of any authority for it, 
and without any account whatever of its origin. It is 
easy to see that the apostles of this " profound faith " 
rely for its acceptance wholly upon the fact that it is 
well-pleasing to man to hear himself proclaimed to be 
divine. The era of the freedom of thought and opinion 
from all authority has been proclaimed ; and this 
is a state wherein man is at liberty to believe exactly 
what suits him. And to think of himself " as God " 
suits him exactly. 

Nevertheless, this "profound faith," which has 
"renewed our whole modern theology," did not 
originate with man, much less with modern man. Its 
origin is directly traceable to that ancient promise, 
which has been the spring and inspiration of all human 
ii 



154 NEW THEOLOGIES 

progress and civilization, namely, " Ye shall not surely 
die. Ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil."" 
And the time has now come when that old serpent, 
the arch-deceiver, who, by means of this promise, lured 
man to his destruction, finds mouthpieces in every 
religious denomination through which he may proclaim 
to mankind that the promise has at last been fulfilled, 
and that man has become " as God."" 

Mr. Smythe very plainly teaches that the authority 
by which doctrine is to be judged is in man 
himself "in the individual conscience" and hence 
that there is no need of external authority. If a pro- 
position commends itself to man's ideas, then he may 
(and indeed must) accept it as truth. He says that 
" Divine authority is indeed primarily the truth 
as witnessed by the spirit in the individual con- 
science " (p. 90) ; 

and while Mr. Smythe gives this as the doctrine of the 
Modernists, it plainly has his own approval. 
Again he says : 

"It is love of truth that inspires those two 
factors of modern civilization science and demo- 
cracy." 
And he asks : 

" With such allies what cause can fail ? " 
(p. 95). 

We would direct special attention to this statement, 
for it is of fundamental importance. It must depend 



"FACTORS OF MODERN CIVILIZATION 1 ' 155 

for its acceptance wholly upon the extravagant com- 
mendation it bestows on human institutions. Man 
prides himself on his modern science and his demo- 
cracy. It pleases him well to be told that these are 
"two factors of modern civilization," and that with 
such allies no cause can fail. Man will, therefore, 
demand no proof to support the statement that it is 
" love of the truth " which inspires these two factors, 
whereby the cause of humanity is to be triumphantly 
established. But there is, nevertheless, another view 
of the matter, and one which does not depend for its 
support upon its acceptability to the natural heart of 
man. If there is " the truth " to be loved and sought, 
there is also " the lie " to be hated and shunned. The 
doctrine of the divinity of man is either one of the 
greatest of all truths, or it is one of the greatest of all 
lies. It can occupy no middle ground. If the old 
doctrine of the corruption of human nature is the truth, 
then the modern (and ancient) doctrine that man is 
(or should become) " as God " is the lie. The original 
text of 2 Thess. ii. 11 speaks, not of a lie, but of the 
lie ; and to what can this refer but to that first of all 
lies, namely, that man should eventually become, 
through the pursuit and acquisition of knowledge, as 
God? We are come at last to a time in which men 
are, in great masses, accepting this doctrine ; and those 
who proclaim it declare that it is "the love of the 
truth " which inspires the factors of man's uplift to the 



156 NEW THEOLOGIES 

Divine plane. But the Bible, while clearly predicting 
the time of acceptance of this doctrine, assigns to its 
acceptance an explanation which is the reverse of that 
given by Mr. Smythe. The Bible says that the accept- 
ance of the lie will be because men would not receive 
the love of the truth. " Because they received not the 
love of the truth that they might be saved," " for this 
cause God shall send them strong delusion that they 
should believe the lie" (2 Thess. ii. 10, 11). 

Here again we have the teaching of the Bible and 
that of the popular modern theology in direct opposi- 
tion one to the other. All must agree that, if one of 
these utterances is " the truth," the other is " the lie " ; 
and each must for himself decide which is which. 

Mr. Smythe further says : 

" Modernism is not a schism, breaking off at a 
single point : it is laying broad foundations of re- 
ligion in history, science, and democracy " (p. 109). 

We deem it important to note the unanimity of the 
modern theologians in regarding the old " foundations " 
of faith as having been destroyed, and in speaking of 
new foundations for religion being laid in history, 
science, and democracy. And it is important to note 
further that these foundations are entirely man's work. 
History, science, and democracy are purely human 
institutions. 

All this is but affirming, under another form of 
words, the doctrine of the divinity of Man ; for in this 



AN IMPOSSIBLE RELIGIOUS BASIS 157 

"religion," based on history, science, and democracy, God 
has no place at all, except as He is identical with Man. 

But the great currency which has been given to 
phrases such as that last quoted, shows that modern 
man is not only ready to accept, without any proof 
whatever, the most radical statements, provided they 
be sufficiently flattering to himself, but that he is even 
ready to accept, upon the same condition, statements 
which are utterly void of sense or meaning. For it is 
palpable nonsense to say that any religious faith can 
be based on either history, science, or democracy. 
History and science give us a mixture of facts 
and fables, the former dealing with the doings of 
man in the past, and the latter dealing with the 
substances and forces of nature. But religious faith 
has to do entirely with matters beyond the sphere both 
of scientific investigations and of historic inquiries. 
And to speak of laying foundations of religion in 
democracy is so utterly void of sense or meaning as to 
be incapable even of examination. Yet such phrases 
as these are entirely satisfactory to the modern man ; 
and that being so, they possess the only sanction that 
is supposed to be required. 

Of the present Pope and his efforts to suppress 
Modernism, and to interfere with its programme, 
Mr. Smythe says : 

"The present Pope is a parenthesis. Some 
parentheses of history have been long-drawn-out ; 



158 NEW THEOLOGIES 

but always God's sentence goes on to its full 
period. The reaction of Pius x. is an interrup- 
tion. Modernism runs in the main line of 
the thought and intent of Christian civilization " 
(p. 118). 

Mr. Smythe therefore confidently expects that the 
interests of Christian civilization will be promoted by 
that movement which the Pope calls the " Synthesis of 
all heresies." 

The last section of Mr. Smythe's book is prophetic 
in form and substance. Its title is " Coming 
Catholicism." This universal religion, shortly to be 
established in the earth, is, as Mr. Smythe sees it, an 
ecclesiastical system so broad, so liberal, and so ac- 
commodating, that all phases of religious thought may 
find a place in it. Man is to build his own religious 
temple, and when completed it is to be greatly to 
his credit and entirely to his liking. The author 
says : 

"The time, men are saying, seems ripe for 
something" (p. 175). 

To .this statement all thoughtful observers will 
assent ; and they who believe " the sure word of 
prophecy " must agree with Mr. Smythe, that there shall 
indeed be established on earth a religious system, of 
the general character described by him, and which will 
be so nearly universal that it may properly be called 
the coming " Catholicism." But, on the other hand, 



" INTERNATIONALISM * 159 

believers in the prophetic Scriptures will vigorously 
protest against Mr. Smythe^s reference to this "New 
Catholicism " as the " further coming of Christ." They 
declare that, on the contrary, it will be the coming of 
Antichrist, the advent of that potentate whose coming 
shall be after the working of Satan, and whom the 
Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth and 
destroy with the brightness of His appearing. They 
have authority for this belief, even the sure word of 
prophecy. What authority does Mr. S my the cite for 
his ? None whatever. 

Mr. Smythe further argues the coming of the great 
Unification of Mankind from consideration of 

"the political process through which Interna- 
tionalism is taking form and substance " (p. 198). 

The process to which the author here refers is one 
of the most significant phenomena of the day. The 
tendency of industrial interests to override and 
disregard national and geographical boundaries is dis- 
tinctly a modern development, and this had to come 
before there could be any unification of peoples of 
different nationalities. This process is aptly called 
'* Internationalism." For the purposes of certain 
businesses, such as the gigantic steel industry, for 
example, national boundaries have already been 
practically blotted out ; and it is evident that as 
business, i.e. the pursuit of wealth, becomes more and 
more the paramount concern of humanity, there will be 



160 NEW THEOLOGIES 

developed an increasingly powerful motive for inter- 
national federation. The fulfilment of prophecy 
requires an industrial and religious system which shall 
exercise a brief control throughout all lands, and over 
all kindreds and tongues and nations ; and Mr. Smythe 
rightly says that a political process is even now in 
operation which is giving form and substance to such a 
system. He adds : 

" A federation of industrial interests throughout 
the world, and a peaceful reign of international 
law, are now much advocated. These ideas have 
entered as a social ferment into the politics of 
the world in this century." 

" The forerunner of a world's peaceful commerce 
and industry calls to the Churches to repent of 
their strife "(p. 198). 

Here, then, is another observer who, from his watch- 
tower, discerns the approach of the great Consolidation, 
and who describes to us its main features as being 
just those predicted in Rev. xiii. The coming system 
which he sees near at hand is " a federation of industrial 
interests " ; it is to extend " throughout the world " ; it 
calls for a corresponding religious federation ; and 
it is the product of ideas which have entered as a 
ferment (leaven) into the politics of the -world in this 
century. 

But this coming system, the monstrous combination 
of religion and trade, will not be, as Mr. Smythe calls it, 



another Christianity " the Christianity that is to be." 
There cannot be another Christianity. The only 
reason why that much-abused name is applied by some 
modern prophets to the coming ecclesiasticism, is that 
it is possible thereby to deceive many as to the real 
nature and source of this system. Such, doubtless, will 
be the effect, upon some minds, of the following 
passage : 

"The Christianity that now is must give its 
baptism to the Christianity that is to be." 

" From the baptism of this spirit may proceed, 
perhaps sooner than men may think or dream, 
the age of the one Holy Catholic Church. And 
if the age of Protestantism which passeth away 
was with glory, much more that which remaineth 
is with glory " (p. 208). 

It would be instructive to consider this coming 
religion, as described by its heralds and apostles, for 
the special purpose of comparing what it offers to men 
with the offer of that gospel which has been preached 
from of old " with the Holy Ghost sent down from 
heaven." One who examines the new system for this 
purpose will quickly discover that it contains practically 
nothing for the individual soul. Beyond the dubious 
privilege of holding whatever religious opinions he may 
prefer, and of participating to some undefined extent 
in the general prosperity which is to be attained in the 



162 NEW THEOLOGIES 

dim future, the new religion offers nothing to the 
individual man. We hear only of vaguely defined 
benefits to " humanity," " mankind," " society," 1 " the 
race." Mankind as an entity is to triumph, to be 
enriched, to enter a state of peace and safety, etc. 

On the other hand, the God of the Bible is the God 
of the individual the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and 
of Jacob. The Good Shepherd knows His sheep and 
calls them by name. Instead of vague benefits to the 
race, at some indefinite and far-off time, the believer in 
Christ has the offer of the immediate remission of his 
sins, of personal salvation, of eternal life, of an incor- 
ruptible inheritance, and of the gift of the Holy Spirit 
as the earnest of that inheritance until the redemption 
of the purchased possession. He has also the assurance 
of membership in the body of Christ, a prepared place 
in the Father's house, a share in the glory of the Son 
of God, and joint heirship with Him Whom the Father 
hath appointed the Heir of all things. Instead of 
extolling the solidarity of Man, the pardoned sinner 
can speak of " the Son of God Who loved me and gave 
himself for me " ; (Gal. ii. 20) ; and instead of looking 
away to a " unified humanity," which fallible and dying 
men tell him is to rise out of the earth long after he 
himself shall have gone down into the night of death, 
he looks for the Son of God from heaven, Whom He 
raised from the dead, even .Jesus Who delivered us 
from the wrath to come (1 Thess. i. 10). 



A GIGANTIC DECEPTION 163 

If, then, man be really free in matters of religion to 
choose what he likes, as these new theologies declare, 
and if truth in reality be whatever one pleases to 
believe, what stupendous folly it would be to exchange 
the unsearchable riches of Christ for the emptiness and 
utter destitution of the New Theology? And if the 
believer be assured, in the name of modern science 
and scholarship, that his Christ is a myth, he can well 
afford to say that his mythical Christ, and the salvation 
wrought and brought by Him, are of far greater value 
than all the promises of the new religion, which, in 
fact, has no promise at all for the needy and suffering 
of this present generation. 

The whole system is so empty, so plainly to all who 
have eyes to see a gigantic deception, a stupendous 
fraud, a disordered vision of this night of superstition, 
credulity and folly, that nothing short of supernatural 
power could give it any acceptance among men ; 
especially in a world which God so loved as to give His 
only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him 
should not perish but have everlasting life (John iii. 
16). How great, then, must be the power of deception 
exercised by " that old serpent, called the Devil and 
Satan, which DECEIVETH THE WHOLE WORLD," and who is 
the author of that immensely popular religious system 
which has for its cardinal doctrine the assurance that 
man should eventually be, and has now at last become, 
" as God ! " 



164 NEW THEOLOGIES 

SPIRITISM 

The subject of Spiritism is too large for anything like 
a thorough consideration in this volume. But for present 
purposes we require only a brief reference to this move- 
ment, our object being merely to consider the part 
assigned to it in shaping the ultimate ecclesiasticism. 

At first glance there would appear to be no relation 
whatever between the new rationalistic theologies, 
which claim to be highly " scientific," and which make 
a point of discrediting all the supernatural elements of 
Christianity, and the essentially supernatural cult of 
Spiritism. Indeed, there is ostensibly no relation 
between these several movements. Nevertheless, 
Spiritism is working towards the very same result as the 
advanced theologies, and is playing an important part 
in accomplishing that result. 

In the first place, let it be remembered that the new 
theologies and their author have no enmity towards 
the supernatural broadly, but only towards the super- 
natural elements of Christianity. In the second place, 
the new theologians discredit the supernatural simply 
because it is (or until very recently was) deemed 
necessary for a man to do so in order to enjoy a 
reputation for being "scientific." It follows that, as 
soon as " Science " shall countenance the supernatural, 
the progressive theologians will make haste to put 
themselves on the new " foundation." 



SCIENTIFIC SPIRITISM 165 

Now, the most striking present-day development in 
Spiritism is the fact that scientific men, including some 
of the first rank, are giving their countenance to it, 
and are vouching for the genuineness of its phenomena. 
Further reference will be made to this. 

Again, the average man does by nature thoroughly 
believe in, we might even say recognize, a supernatural 
sphere ; though many conceal their real sentiments on 
this subject out of deference to the attitude of 
"Science." Hence there must needs be provision in 
the new religious system for this feature of human 
nature. 

It must also be remembered that Satan is himself a 
spirit (Eph. ii. 2, 1 Cor. ii. 12, 1 John iv. 6), and 
his religions have all a predominant supernatural 
element. 

Finally, the prophecies we have examined lay much 
stress upon the supernatural demonstrations which are 
to attend the establishment of the last great religious- 
commercial system. " The Spirit speaketh EXPRESSLY, 
that in the LATTER TIMES some shall depart from the 
faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines 
of demons" (1 Tim. iv. 1, Gr.). One of the end-time 
doctrines, to which this passage refers, and which is to 
be supernaturally taught, is "forbidding to marry." 
We note this in passing, intending to deal with it 
later on. 

With these prophecies in mind we would naturally 



166 NEW THEOLOGIES 

look about among the current human activities to 
discover where the predicted supernatural elements of 
the ultimate religion were to come from ; and there 
would be an important factor missing if the source of 
these elements were not to be found. But the source 
of that important factor is in full view ; and not only 
so, but is likewise supplying at the present moment 
its special contribution to the religio - commercial 
prodigy of the end-times. 

A few facts in connection with spiritism will show 
that the spirit of evil and his subordinate hosts are 
at this very moment actively preparing this important 
part of the mystery of iniquity. 



Whereas, until within a very recent time spiritism 
was generally discredited, its alleged phenomena 
scouted and ridiculed (especially in scientific circles), 
and its " mediums n denounced as charlatans and 
impostors, all this has now changed. Not only are 
the phenomena of Spiritism seriously investigated by 
sceptical scientific men, whom it is not easy to deceive 
as to physical occurrences, but they are vouched for as 
having stood every conceivable scientific test. Men of 
high repute for intelligence and learning have publicly 
given their countenance to spiritism ; but, as we main- 
tain, these " scientists " have been the dupes of the 



SPIRITISM MADE RESPECTABLE 167 

" deceiving spirits " to the extent that the former have 
been led to regard the latter as the discarnate spirits of 
the human dead. Among the prominent men of science 
who have, to this extent, enrolled themselves among 
the Spiritists, mention may be made of Sir William 
Crookes and Sir Oliver Lodge, who have in recent 
years devoted much time to the investigation of this 
class of phenomena. 

Of course, this puts Spiritism before the public in an 
entirely new light ; and with such endorsements, the 
former fear of, and contempt for, this dangerous cult 
are being rapidly dispelled, and are indeed being 
replaced by deference and respect. The way is thus 
being prepared for new and ever widening spheres of 
demoniacal activity, and for the supply of new and 
more efficient human channels, or " mediums, 11 through 
which the spirits may operate. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, in a recent utterance, declared 
that the partition between the natural and the 
supernatural is "wearing thin in places. 11 Such is 
indeed the case ; and those who know and believe their 
Bibles, regard this as one of the surest indications of 
the near coming of Christ. 

From this recent and unexpected development of 
Spiritism we may learn how readily Satan is able to 
supply himself with a new source of authority. It is 
obviously in keeping with the doctrine of the divinity 
of man to believe that human beings who have " passed 



168 NEW THEOLOGIES 

beyond" are more enlightened touching the unseen 
things than those who are yet in the body. 

In harmony with this, Mr. Campbell in his New 
Theology teaches that 

" Physical death is not the all-important event 
which theologians have usually made it out to be ; 
it is only a bend in the road. My own impression 
is that when we individually pass through this 
crisis we shall find the change to be very slight. 
It will mean the dropping of the scales from the 
eyes, and that is about all." 

This is the teaching of Spiritism ; and such teaching 
manifestly opens the door very wide to the promulga- 
tion and acceptance by credulous humanity of the 
" doctrines of demons. 11 

We deem it highly important that the readers of 
these pages should be fully informed concerning the 
strange and ominous alliance which has been recently 
effected between Physical Science, represented by the 
well-known names already mentioned, and the evil 
cult of Spiritism. Great publicity has been given to 
this alliance through a "report"" recently published 
(January 1909), setting forth the results of certain 
elaborate experiments conducted by Sir Oliver Lodge 
and other members of the British Society for Psychical 
Research. These experiments constituted an attempt 
"to carry on definite, unmistakable communications 
with the spirits of F. W. H. Myers and Dr. Richard 



A "TREMENDOUS COMMOTION" 169 

Hodgson." The former was, in his lifetime, the 
secretary and active director of the above-named 
society, and the latter is spoken of as " a clergyman, 
poet, classical scholar, and scientist." 

One of the committee to which the management 
of the "sittings" was entrusted was Mr. G. W. 
Balfour, who is also the president of the society. 
Under such auspices the proceedings have a standing 
before the public which fully commends them and 
their " results " to all but the spiritually enlightened. 
An account published in the New York Times says that 
"the report has excited a tremendous commotion in 
scientific and religious circles in England.' 1 '' No doubt. 
" Science " and " religion " find a community of interest 
in Spiritism. 

These experiments were conducted pursuant to an 
arrangement made by Messrs. Myers and Hodgson 
during their lifetime, and were carried on with every 
precaution against dishonesty or self-deception on the 
part of the mediums. 

These mediums or " psychics," through whom the 
experiments were carried on, were all women. Their 
names, as published, were Mrs. Piper, Mrs. Verrall 
(the wife of the noted English scholar), her daughter 
Miss Verrall, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. Forbes, and Mrs. 
Holland (the two latter are assumed names). The 
woman was the first " medium " employed by Satan in 
communicating with mankind ; and he still manifests a 
12 



170 NEW THEOLOGIES 

strong preference for the female side of humanity. 
Experience shows that, for some mysterious reason, 
women are more susceptible than men to spiritistic 
influence. In view of this fact it behoves all women, 
especially Christian women, to be exceedingly careful 
in these perilous times, and to suspect every movement 
which is attended by abnormal subjective experiences. 
It will be observed as an invariable rule that in all 
spiritual manifestations of sinister origin (such as the 
most recent one, accompanied by an uncouth imitation 
of the gift of tongues), and which involve also the 
unscriptural phenomenon of substituted personality (the 
true personality being displaced by a spirit), the great 
majority of those who have this "experience" are 
women. 

The " psychics " through whom communications were 
carried on with the supposed spirits of Myers and 
Hodgson, were located in cities far apart (Mrs. Holland 
was in Calcutta, India), and messages were received 
through them simultaneously. Other precautions were 
taken to eliminate collusion, and to bring the experi- 
ments under strictly scientific test conditions. For 
example, the spirit personating Myers was asked to 
give part of a message through one medium, and part 
simultaneously through another in a distant city, so that 
the two might be compared to see if they matched, and 
if they were, when combined, such a message as might 
be expected from Myers. 



ESTABLISHING PSYCHIC IDENTITY 171 

One would suppose that, if the spirits were really 
those of departed human beings, and if they controlled 
mediums of communication (as in these experiments), 
it would be an exceedingly simple matter to establish 
their identity to the entire satisfaction of those who 
knew them in life ; and particularly should this be an 
easy matter where secret pre-arrangements had been 
made (as in this case) to facilitate the establishment of 
such identity. If, on the other hand, the communica- 
tions were from demons (well-acquainted, possibly, with 
those they were endeavouring to personate, but yet 
necessarily limited in their knowledge of them), we 
should expect occasional hitches and discrepancies, and 
other indications of imperfect acquaintance with the 
life-history of the impersonated individuals. It is 
therefore highly significant that the messages received 
were frequently (if not generally) of a nonsensical and 
bombastic character, like the following : " I stretch my 
hand across the vaporous space, the interlunar space 
twixt moon and earth where the gods of Lucretius 
quaff their nectar. Do you not understand ? " 

We think one might, indeed, be excused if he failed 
to understand this cryptic utterance ; and it requires a 
great stretch of credulity to suppose that the spirit of 
a departed human being would send such a communi- 
cation as this to his friends in the attempt thereby to 
establish his identity. But the sapient investigators 
were of the opinion that Myers was, in the above 



172 NEW THEOLOGIES 

message, paraphrasing some lines of Lucretius, which, 
by the way, are exceedingly unlike the supposed 
paraphrase. But even if we indulge this rather 
violent assumption, it is yet not seen how the com- 
munication tends in the slightest degree to establish 
the identity of Myers, unless (which nowhere appeal's) 
the latter was, in his lifetime, addicted to the very 
eccentric habit of framing exceedingly clumsy para- 
phrases of the ancient poets. 

Here are some other of the reported messages : 

"Look out for Hope, Star, and Browning 1 ' 1 ; 
" with laureat wreath his brow serene was 
crowned." " No more to-day await the better 
news that brings assurance with a laurel crown," 
etc. etc. 

These utterances are such as might be expected 
from some of the preposterous characters in Alice in 
Wonderland; but our scientists, on due consideration 
of them, reached the conclusion that they constituted 
parts of a complicated attempt on the part of Myers 
and Hodgson to establish their identity beyond all 
doubt. 

It is further stated, in the accounts which have 
reached us, that many poetical communications were 
received, "automatically suggesting or elaborating on 
the idea of a supernal heavenly calm.'''' No doubt the 
awful Being, who has "the power of death, that is 
the Devil" (Heb. ii. 14), would be glad to spread the 



A BLUNDERING "CONTROL" 173 

notion that all and sundry of the dead, even though 
out ef Christ, are in a state of "supernal heavenly 
calm." 

But a further explanation is needed at this point. 
It appears that, for some unexplained reason, the spirits 
of Myers and Hodgson themselves were not able to 
communicate directly through the "psychics." The 
latter, it seems, can be possessed only by certain 
specially endowed Intelligences, technically called 
" Controls." When a message is to be delivered the 
control enters the psychic, receives the message, and 
causes the psychic to write it out. This is called 
"automatic writing," being done by the psychic while 
in a trance condition. Thus, Mrs. Piper has two 
"controls," who gave their names respectively as 
" Imperator " and " Rector." Hence Messrs. Myers 
and Hodgson had to entrust their messages to a " con- 
trol," and the latter, entering one of the "psychics," 
turned it into words through automatic writing. 
The advantage of this arrangement on the part of the 
demons is evident. Whenever a mistake, discrepancy, 
or other blunder occurs, it may be conveniently attri- 
buted to the stupidity of the " control." For example, 
one communication contained the word " Evangelical." 
This word being unintelligible (and to our mind 
grotesquely incongruous), an explanation was de- 
manded ; and Myers was reported as explaining that 
he had been trying to give through "Rector" the 



174 NEW THEOLOGIES 

name " Evelyn Hope," and that " Rector " had care- 
lessly put it down "Evangelical." This explanation 
appears to have been perfectly satisfactory to the 
scientists. They conclude their report by saying 

" To sum up : In this concordant episode of 
Mrs. Piper's trance and Mrs. Verrall's script, the 
controlling influence in both cases claims to be 
one and the same personality, namely, Frederic 
Myers." 

And the report proceeds to give reasons from which 
the only inference possible is that, in the opinion of its 
writers, the communicator was none other than the 
discarnate human spirit of Frederic Myers. 

It would be difficult to exaggerate the seriousness to 
humanity of this alliance between physical science and 
demonism. As the result, we have the machinery pre- 
pared, and already in full operation, for the most 
gigantic deception over practised upon the educated 
classes of society. By means of this new engine of 
deception millions upon millions may be lured into the 
comfortable belief that they may reject the Christ of 
God, and may yet be assured, upon the authority of 
" Science," of a continued existence of blissfulness " a 
supernal heavenly calm " after death. 

Here, then, we have the source from which the coming 
religion of Humanism is to derive its supernatural 
components. 



THE SPREAD OF SPIRITISM 175 

Humanism, having sprung out of the economic or 
industrial conditions of our age, and being primarily 
concerned only with the material prosperity of human 
beings, has been itself utterly materialistic. Its close 
intellectual ally has been the evolutionary concept of 
the universe, so widely accepted among the wise of this 
world, and itself likewise utterly materialistic. Where 
then was the necessary supernatural element to come 
from ? We have now the clear answer to that question, 
and we see also the Devil's purpose in keeping alive, 
until the time was ripe, that once despised and dreaded 
cult of Spiritism. This is evidently the source of the 
supernatural component of the religion of Humanity, 
and which furnishes the last and deadliest element to 
that brew of abominations. 



II 

The spirits are likewise extending their influence in 
the sphere of professing Christianity, where but a short 
time ago Spiritism was regarded with aversion and 
contempt. Of course, so long as the Bible was acknow- 
ledged as having authority over professing Christians, 
none of these would think of consulting familiar spirits. 
But again, with the relaxation of the authority of the 
Bible, a great change has taken place, so that the door 
is wide open for the reception by professing Christians 
of spirit communications. 



176 NEW THEOLOGIES 

As an indication of this it will suffice to mention a 
single incident of recent occurrence as reported in the 
daily press. 

A meeting was lately held in London to celebrate 
the " union " of several Methodist societies which 
previously had maintained a separate existence. At 
this meeting the Rev. W. B. Lark asked permission to 
read one of a number of extraordinary communications 
which he had received. The letter, as read and 
reported in the public press, was as follows : 

"MANSION No. 4, NEW JERUSALEM, 
"1709 to 1907. 

"Congratulations on the union of free and 
progressive Methodism. We are in hearty sym- 
pathy with your best aspirations. Be sure to be 
true to the inner light, the larger hope, the higher 
criticism and universal redemption, and victory is 

assured. 

"JOHN AND CHARLES WESLEY. 

" P,S. Oh, that the world might taste and see 

The riches of His grace ! 
The arms of love that bind them 
Would all mankind embrace. 

" Further, the Conference may be glad to know 
we have learned a great deal since our translation 
to the higher life." 

This incident is very instructive. Not only does it 
illustrate the encroachment of Spiritism upon professing 



"DOCTRINES OF DEMONS" 177 

Christian organizations, but it calls attention expressly 
to those "doctrines of demons" which the hosts of 
wickedness in heavenly places are most desirous of 
propagating. The first of these is the doctrine of the 
" inner light," i.e, the doctrine of God within, which 
New Theology emphasizes, and which is the unifying 
article of religious faith around which mankind is to 
be consolidated. Then comes the " larger hope," which 
is also spoken of as " universal redemption," that is to 
say, the doctrine of the salvation of all men. And 
finally, we have " the higher criticism," which Satan has 
so successfully used in setting aside the authority of the 
Bible. 

This triad of evil doctrines, in support of which the 
respected and beloved names of John and Charles 
Wesley are used, brings to mind the vision of the three 
unclean spirits, like frogs, which came out of the mouth 
of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and 
out of the mouth of the false prophet, which were the 
spirits of demons going forth unto the kings of the 
earth and unto the whole world, to gather them to 
the battle of that great day of God Almighty (Rev. 
xvi. 13, 14). 

It is very evident that the founders of English 
Methodism must not only have " learned a great deal " 
since their " translation to the higher life," but must 
have unlearned a great deal, before they could have 
issued such a message as this. 



178 NEW THEOLOGIES 

It is not to be supposed that this communication 
was received by the assemblage to whom it was read 
with any degree of favour or credulity. But the 
astonishing thing is that it should have been received 
and read at all. Such an occurrence would not have 
been possible a few years ago. 

And finally, the incident shows us what a serviceable 
engine of deception has been made available to Satan 
through the recognition which Spiritism has recently 
received in certain high places. Through this means 
the great Deceiver may now promulgate whatever 
doctrines best serve his malign purposes, and may gain 
credence for such doctrines by forging thereto the 
names of men who, in their lifetime, were prominent 
and influential teachers of Christian truth. 



Ill 



The essential characteristic of Spiritism on its 
experimental or subjective side, is what may be called 

DISPLACED Or SUBSTITUTED PERSONALITY ; that IS to Say, 

the personality of the man or woman (in a very large 
majority of cases the latter) who is the subject of the 
experience, is temporarily dislodged, and is replaced 
by that of the spirit or invisible intelligence, who 
then exercises a more or less complete control over 
the mind and body of such individual. In this con- 



SUBSTITUTED PERSONALITY 179 

nection the word " control " has acquired a technical 
significance. 

Closely allied to this experience of substituted 
personality are the phenomena classed under the general 
names of Hypnotism or Mental Suggestion. In these 
phenomena the personality, will, or understanding of 
the " subject " is set aside, and his (or her) mind is 
subordinated to the " suggestions " of another. The 
main difference between these phenomena and those of 
Spiritism is that while the "subject"" in both cases 
surrenders, wholly or partially, his own volition and the 
control of his own thoughts and actions, the control 
thereof is exercised, in this case, not by a demon but 
by another human being. In both cases, however, 
we have the phenomenon of displaced and substituted 
personality, either partial or complete, whereby a 
person is constrained by the will of another to think 
and say and do things he would not otherwise think or 
say or do. 

The standing which this phenomenon of substituted 
personality has secured may be judged from the follow- 
ing language of Sir Oliver Lodge : 

" I am going to assume, in fact, that our bodies 
can, under certain exceptional circumstances, be 
controlled directly, or temporarily possessed, by 
another or foreign intelligence, operating either 
on the whole or on some limited part of it. The 
question lying behind such a hypothesis, and 



180 NEW THEOLOGIES 

justifying it or negativing it, is the root question 
of identity the identity of the control." 

This is indeed the important question ; and herein 
lies the danger, even to Christians, of being deceived 
and led into error of doctrine and into immoral prac- 
tices ; for the " lying spirits " do not scruple to use 
sacred formulae, speaking even of the Blood of Christ 
and the Coming of the Lord, in order to gain the 
coveted " control." This brings us to the next point, 
which is highly important. 

Perhaps the most serious phase of these allied 
movements of Spiritism and Hypnotism is that the 
leading phenomena and prominent incidents of spirit- 
istic and hypnotic seances are now repeated in certain 
gatherings of Christian people, and are, by those who 
seek such experiences, attributed to the operation of 
the Spirit of God. Especially is the experience of a 
substituted personality that which is most eagerly 
sought by those who frequent meetings of this kind, 
their main object and effort being to part with their 
own personality and to come under the "control" 
of an unseen personality. These "seekers" are 
apparently not to be deterred from agonizing for the 
desired experience by the fact that Scripture gives no 
instance of a man's personality being displaced by the 
Holy Spirit, whereas the phenomenon of substituted 
personality is the very essence of demonism. And 
as in the case of Spiritism and Hypnotism, it is 



"SUGGESTIVE THERAPEUTICS" 181 

found that an exceedingly large majority of those who 
succeed in coming " under the power " or " control " 
are women. It is well to recall in this connection 
that it was through the female side of humanity 
that Satan originally established his "control" over 
the race. 

In like manner, the practices and phenomena of 
Hypnotism have gained admission, in the form of 
methods of healing nervous and kindred disorders, into 
gatherings which are, nominally at least, Christian. 
A number of reputable physicians have lent their aid 
and countenance to these new departures in religious 
practice, while others have very strongly opposed and 
severely criticized them. 

It is not strange that the almost universal departure 
of Christian people from faith in Christ as the Healer 
of the body, coupled with the conspicuous inadequacy of 
" medical science " to furnish effective curative remedies, 
should have prepared the way for the acceptance of 
methods of healing which, but a short time ago, were 
viewed in the same quarters with aversion and even 
with horror. 

The present results (bad as they are) of these new 
inroads of demonism are not so serious as will be the 
future conditions for which they are paving the way. 
One advantage which the great Deceiver has gained by 
means of them is, that people are becoming accustomed 
to manifestations and occurrences of a sort which, 



182 NEW THEOLOGIES 

until now, would have excited suspicion and alarm. 
Thus, there is in progress a general breaking down of 
the barriers which once safeguarded the mass of the 
people from teachings accredited by supernatural mani- 
festations. And by this means the way is being rapidly 
prepared for the acceptance, as Divine credentials, of 
those signs and wonders of falsehood which are to 
accompany Satan's great assault upon humanity when 
he shall come down in person to the earth, having 
great wrath because he knows that his time is short 
(Rev. xii. 12). 

IV 

Finally, these supernatural demonstrations are 
working with other evil agencies to weaken the 
authority of the Bible. One group of religious leaders 
says plainly : " Never mind what the Bible says about 
this or that." Another set lauds the intelligence and 
progress of the age because it has delivered itself from 
" bondage to the Book." Another set concedes that the 
Bible writings were inspired, but puts other writings 
on the same level with them. And the deceived class 
we are now considering claim to have newer and more 
timely revelations directly from the Spirit of God. 
By all these means the unwary are diverted from the 
Word of Truth, from its warnings which are so needed 
at the present time, and particularly from those pro- 



A STRANGE FELLOWSHIP 183 

phecies which clearly predict the activities of the 
present day and their outcome. x 

1 In the course of revising the proofs of this volume, a 
paragraph in the London Daily Telegraph, 5th June 1909, 
came to my notice, and I here quote it as a striking con- 
firmation of the proposition that the seemingly diverse 
and independent religious movements we have been 
examining are in reality but different phases of the same 
movement, or are, in the language of the newspaper item, 
"fundamentally one." The item shows, too, that the 
different elements of this great forward movement of 
humanity are coming to recognize their kinship, and are 
drawing together into co-operative fellowship. Most 
significant is it to see the portentous blend of Physical 
Science and Spiritism, represented by Sir Oliver Lodge, 
in working association with England's foremost Modernist, 
" Father " Tyrrell, with the leading exponent of the New 
Theology, Rev. R. J. Campbell, with the well-known 
higher critic, Dr Cheyne of Oxford, with the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Durham, and with other Church dignitaries, 
members of Parliament, and prominent laymen. This is 
the item : 

" PROGRESSIVE THEOLOGY 

" An interesting announcement regarding the 
progressive movement in theology is made by the 
Christian Commonwealth, a weekly newspaper which 
is closely identified with the teachings of the City 
Temple, but in the administration and direction of 
which, it is now stated, the Rev. R. J. Campbell has 
not hitherto taken any part. What has now been 
done is to form an editorial board, under the chair- 
manship of Mr. Campbell, with the object of giving 
expression as far as possible to all phases of the move- 



184 NEW THEOLOGIES 

ment which, though many-sided, it is claimed is 
fundamentally one. ' Modernism in the Church of 
Rome, the Liberal movement in the Church of 
England, the " New Theology " in Nonconformity, 
the new spirit in Unitarianism, the Reform movement 
in Judaism, the spirit of modern scientific inquiry as 
represented by Sir Oliver Lodge, are,' says the 
announcement, ' all more or less akin.' 

"The new editorial board is to demonstrate the 
essential unity of the movement. Its other members 
are as follows : The Rev. K. C. Anderson, D.D., 
Dundee; the Rev. Professor T. K. Cheyne, D.D., 
Oxford; the Rev. Stopford A. Brooke, LL.D., London; 
the Rev. Professor Duff, D.D., Bradford; the Rev. 
A. W. Hutton, rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, London ; 
Professor L. P. Jacks, Oxford ; the Very Rev. G. W. 
Kitchin, D.D., Dean of Durham; the Rev. E. W. 
Lewis, Clapham ; Mr. Philip Snowdon, M.P. ; Sir 
Richard Stapley, London; the Rev. J. M. Lloyd 
Thomas, Nottingham ; and the Rev. T. Rhondda 
Williams, Brighton. In addition, Sir Oliver Lodge, 
Canon Bamett, Father Tyrell, the Rev. A. L. Lilley, 
and the Rev. Isidore Harris are named as occasional 
contributors." 




WE now turn our attention to what we have called 
the Economic Field of human activity. It is easier to 
trace the movements which are in progress in this 
field than those in the religious field ; and moreover, 
the majority of reading people are more familiar with 
them, for two reasons : first, because they have more 
interest in them ; and second, because the economic 
events of the times are prominent subjects of dis- 
cussion in all the numerous periodicals upon which the 
multitude rapaciously feed. 

It follows that the main facts which bear upon our 
general subject are matters of well-nigh universal 
information. Among these facts are the following : 

1. That the energies of mankind tremendously 
augmented by the energies of nature which have been 
brought under human control are being concentrated, 
more and more, upon the production and distri- 
bution of commodities, insomuch that practically 



186 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

all the great problems of the day are economic 
problems. 

2. That the employment of these energies has pro- 
duced an unprecedented increase of wealth. 

3. That the distribution of this rapidly accumulating 
wealth is very uneven, there being a decided tendency 
towards the concentration thereof into the hands of a 
small and decreasing number of people; so that the 
present social order is characterized by colossal fortunes 
of the few and straitened circumstances of the many. 

4. That the present economic system is further 
characterized by periodic industrial convulsions, which 
profoundly affect all classes of society, and whose 
consequences are felt most severely by those who are 
least able to endure them. 

5. That the development of commercialism is 
characterized by an increasingly insistent demand for 
a radical change of the social conditions, and for the 
introduction of an economical order which shall insure 
a better and fairer distribution of the wealth produced 
by the collective efforts of mankind. 

6. That the demand for a better economic system 
is not merely a political movement, but is taking 
decidedly the form of a religious movement. 

Thus, in one great field of human activity (the 
religious field) we see the prominent religious move- 
ments becoming steadily more practical, and aspiring 
to regulate the temporal concerns of men ; while in the 



WEALTH AND HUMAN WELFARE 187 

other field (the economic) we see social movements 
taking on a religious guise, making their appeal to 
the religious feelings of mankind, and seeking the 
support of religious sanctions. 

Whatever be the real relation of wealth to human 
welfare, there can be no doubt that men generally 
regard the former as the real source of the latter, and 
the latter as wholly dependent upon the former. 
Society, as now existing, is organized and operates 
upon the principle that the possession of wealth is the 
highest good, and is the means to every attainable end 
that is worth an effort. If this principle were destroyed, 
society as now organized would fall to pieces, and the 
" titanic industrial energies," which specially character- 
ize it, would subside into relative quiescence. Manu- 
facture and commerce are not organized and carried on 
for the purpose of supplying the actual needs of human 
beings. If that were their object they must be regarded 
as colossal failures, since the needs of the great masses 
of people, no matter how hard they may labour, are 
not by any means fully met. Moreover, there is not 
the smallest likelihood that, under the present social 
system, they ever will be fully met. Business is, on the 
contrary, organized and carried on for the sake of profits. 
This is the motive which has led to the development of 
those gigantic business organizations which are among 
the conspicuous features of this era of commercialism. 
Without that motive they never would have been 



188 DEVELOPMENT'S OF COMMERCIALISM 

brought into existence. The ardent pursuit of profits 
is the outward expression of the profound and implicit 
faith of the modern man in the power of wealth to 
procure welfare and happiness. This faith is obviously 
a religious faith ; and it is a live faith, if judged by 
its works, and upon the principle that faith without 
works is dead. 

Here, then, we have the real religious faith of the 
modern man ; and this faith in the power of wealth to 
bless mankind with all blessings which the heart of man 
can crave, must of necessity be the core of the ultimate 
religious system which man shall evolve for himself. 
Business is but man's service of his god ; and business 
zeal is but the worshipper's effort to procure the largest 
possible share of the favours which his god has to 
dispense, and to gain the highest possible place in his 
service. Although it may not be usually so regarded, 
yet we think it to be obvious upon reflection, that the 
fervid devotion of the modern man to his business is 
really a religious fervour; and this characteristic of 
the man of this day is an important factor in bringing 
about that great combination of religion and business 
which the voice of prophecy foretells. 

All men of the day are not ready to avow that 
business is really their religion, or to acknowledge that 
money is their god. Yet the lives and actions of 
some who are prominent in the affairs of the day 
plainly declare their unbounded faith in the power of 



A UNIFYING PRINCIPLE 189 

wealth, and their firm conviction that the struggle for 
its blessings and favours is the only enterprise worthy 
of supreme human effort. It is the real, if not always 
the formulated, belief of the modern man, that the 
elevation of humanity is to be effected through the 
development of the resources of nature, and the mastery 
of the forces of nature, and through the application 
of these resources and forces to the production of 
wealth. 

Such is the potency of this article of faith, and so 
profoundly has it entered into the heart of man, that it 
has inspired the most consuming zeal, and called forth 
the most tremendous energies, that have been thus far 
displayed in the entire history of the human race. 

Here, then, at last has been discovered a unifying 
principle, capable of drawing together into a common 
enterprise " all them that dwell upon the earth," and 
of inspiring in them the most sustained and strenuous 
religious zeal. 

All this is plain enough, and (except for the religious 
character of the struggle for wealth, which is generally 
overlooked) is the subject of frequent comment. But 
our concern is with the tendencies of the industrial 
activities of our day. To what will these new con- 
ditions, with the great social changes that accompany 
them, eventually lead ? 

In order to follow this inquiry properly, a little 
more detailed attention must be given to certain of 



190 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

the prominent characteristics of Industrialism, which 
we have briefly noted above. 

THE UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTON OF WEALTH 

Attention is frequently and loudly called by a 
certain class of social reformers to the undeniable fact 
that, while the bulk of the wealth of mankind is 
growing at an unprecedented rate, the number of the 
owners of wealth is rapidly diminishing. It is stated 
without denial that one per cent, of the population of 
the United States, the richest and most " progressive " 
country in the world, owns more wealth than the 
other ninety -nine per cent, of the population. This con- 
dition is a fact of much importance, since it is one which, 
in a country that is democratic at least in form, is sure 
to lead eventually to radical social and political changes. 

THE INCREASE OF WEALTH GOES TO THE 
NON-PRODUCERS 

Attention is also called to the fact that all accretions 
of wealth are due to human labour, which is the only 
factor that adds anything to the value of what existed 
before. The quantity of raw material in the world 
being rigidly fixed, it follows that the only additional 
value which can be imparted to materials is that which 
human labour supplies. 

It is therefore becoming more and more a question 
in the minds of the labouring classes, why they, 



A DISAPPOINTING STIMULUS 191 

who are the actual producers of wealth, should 
get but an insignificant part of its benefits, and 
why they, being the majority, should permit the 
continuance of an economic system which operates so 
inequitably. And the answer, which is taking ever 
more definite shape in their minds, and in which they 
are being diligently schooled by able and zealous teachers, 
is to the effect that there is no valid reason, ethical or 
otherwise, why an economic system which yields such 
manifestly unfair results, should be tolerated. Unless 
this unfairness be remedied, a revolution, peaceful or 
otherwise, is sure to bring the system eventually to 
an end. 

This gross disproportion in the distribution of 
the products of human effort is not what one would 
have expected. The thought which would naturally 
stimulate all men to combine and put forth their 
best efforts for the increase of commodities would 
be that, after the wants of those most favourably 
located with reference to the sources of production 
were supplied, the surplus stream of products would 
automatically flow on to satisfy those less advantage- 
ously placed. This expectation might, for a time 
at least, keep the latter class diligently working at 
the increase of wealth in mass, particularly if that 
expectation were kept alive by artfully prepared 
" prosperity " reports, and by statistics showing 
great improvement in the condition of " the working 



192 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

man. 11 But there must inevitably come a time when it 
will be impossible longer to disguise the fact that the 
great surplusage of wealth, which is the boast of the 
age, and which results from the labour of the working 
man, does not overflow the reservoirs of those who employ 
that labour. Those reservoirs are, in fact, capable of 
indefinite expansion ; and, moreover, it invariably 
happens that, before they could by any possibility 
overflow, production receives one of those mysterious 
periodical checks which cause an enforced relaxation 
of effort on all hands. 

FINANCIAL PANICS AND BUSINESS DEPRESSIONS 

The phenomena of financial " panics " and industrial 
upheavals, followed by periods of "depression," are 
another striking characteristic of the existing economic 
order. Of the many groups of financiers and students 
of economics, the Socialists alone seem to have been 
able to furnish anything like a plausible explanation of 
these strange events. Whether or not the remedy 
proposed by Socialism would correct these evils, or 
whether, in correcting them, it would introduce others 
as. bad or worse, is not our present concern. But it 
is very pertinent to notice the explanation which the 
Socialists advance to account for these industrial 
phenomena, because this explanation, which is being 
more and more widely accepted, argues the downfall 
of the present economic system. 



A TWO-PART PARADOX 193 

It has been observed that the strange phenomenon 
called " over-production," whereby the stores, markets, 
and warehouses become glutted with surplus products 
of labour for which there are no purchasers, invariably 
occurs at a time when there is a very large class of 
people who are actually suffering for the need of those 
very products, and that this needy class includes many 
of those whose labour has produced such surplus 
commodities. That suffering should be caused in 
consequence of the existence of a shortage of the 
things upon which life and comfort depend, would be 
intelligible. But how does it come about that 
destitution and need result from the existence in the 
community of too much of these needful things ? By 
what strange contradiction of the logic of cause and 
effect does it come about that the existence of a 
superfluity of the products of labour has the effect of 
curtailing the power of the labourers to purchase those 
things which they have produced in superabundant 
quantity, and for the lack of which they are suffering ? 
Apparently the producers of wealth are curtailed as 
to their purchasing power as a punishment for their 
productivity. Their punishment for having produced 
too much is that they get too little for their own 
needs. At least this is the idea that is being per- 
sistently impressed upon their minds. 

That which is to be explained, then, is a paradox, 
composed of two elements namely, first, that the 



194 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

wealth-producers periodically deprive themselves of 
the power to purchase the things needful for life or 
comfort ; and second, that they do this by producing 
too great a quantity of those very things. 

Now the Socialists say that the cause of this strange 
phenomenon is to be found in the existing economic 
system, which they call " Capitalism " ; and that the 
evil complained of can be removed only by abolishing 
that system. It is not the fault, they say, of the 
capitalist, but of the system. They insist that the 
system is vicious, and that its operation is outrageously 
unjust to those whose labour produces the wealth for 
which all are striving. The vice of the system, they 
say, is that it is organized to produce commodities 
solely for the sake of the profits gained by the 
numerically small capitalist class ; whereas it should 
be organized for the purpose of supplying human needs. 
Under the existing system, production ceases when the 
things produced can no longer be manufactured " at a 
profit " ; whereas under the proposed Socialistic system 
(as yet untried), production would, in theory at least, 
continue so long as there remained any human wants 
unsatisfied. Under the present system the capitalist 
class controls all the machinery of production and dis- 
tribution mills, factories, power-plants, raw material, 
railroads, steamboats, etc., and the only incentive 
which the owners of these appliances have for operating 
them is to add to their own gains. When conditions 



COLLECTIVE OWNERSHIP 195 

occur (as they are bound to do, so long as the existing 
system of " Capitalism " remains) wherein the appliances 
of production cannot be operated at a profit, then 
production is checked, trade sharply declines, factories 
are shut down, and on all sides the capitalists 
"economize" by discharging hands until "times get 
better" for them. 

The Socialist therefore proposes to abolish capital 
and profits, and to establish a social order wherein 
wealth, produced by the joint efforts of all men, 
should be for the benefit of all. Unquestionably such 
a change, if it were possible to effect it, would be 
beneficial to the majority of men, and if desirable 
there is no reason whatever why, in a democratic 
society, the change should not be made, or at least be 
attempted. If the will of the majority be the supreme 
law, then the majority may rightfully abolish Capital- 
ism and introduce Socialism whenever they will so to do. 

But the explanation as thus far given is incomplete. 
It yet remains to be explained why "panics'" and 
their accompanying miseries are necessary character- 
istics of the present economic system. To this 
question the Socialist has a ready answer, and one 
which, unless a better can be advanced, is bound to 
gain an acceptance sufficiently general to produce im- 
portant social changes. His answer is substantially as 
follows : 

In the first place, the labourer receives in wages an 



196 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

amount of money on an average a little less than 
half (instead of the whole) of the actual value 
imparted by his labour to the material upon which 
he works. As this statement is deduced from 
United States census reports, it may be accepted as 
at least approximately accurate. The other fifty 
per cent, (plus) goes as "profits'" to the capitalists. 
We may therefore regard the wealth produced in 
any given period of time as being divided about 
equally between the capitalists and the producers. 
These gains, thus equally divided, constitute the 
purchasing power of the two classes respectively. 
But the purchasing power of the capitalists is shared 
among a very few individuals, while that of the 
labourers must be divided among a great many, so 
that of the latter class each individual's share is 
relatively insignificant. 

But another point has to be stated, and then the 
explanation is easily grasped. Under the present 
system of doing business the cost of selling an article 
is greater (sometimes much greater) than that of 
making it. This selling cost must, of course, be 
added to the retail price of the article ; so that, 
when the individual labourer comes to use his 
gains for making purchases (the only thing they 
are really good for), he can get in return for them 
manufactured goods to the value of only half (or 
less than half) that of their retail purchase price. 



THE PURCHASING POWER OF "WAGES" 197 

Hence when the worker comes to spend his wages 
in buying some of the things which he and other 
workers have made, and for which they received wages 
to only half the market value of their work, he can 
buy with his wages only about half what they should 
purchase. Stated in other words, the working man 
when considered as a " producer " receives, in the form 
of wages, only half the value of what he produces; 
and when considered as a " consumer' 1 of the pro- 
ducts of himself and other labourers, he is able to 
purchase with his wages only about half their actual 
equivalent in commodities. The net result is that 
the purchasing power of the labourers, as a class, is 
contracted to about one-fourth of what they produce. 

Now, since the labouring class constitutes far the 
greater part of the purchasing public, or the " market " 
for the things it produces, it is inevitable that, 
during times of business activity, production should 
gain rapidly on consumption, until a crisis arises. 
The very rich few cannot possibly, with all their 
wastefulness, consume the surplus products which the 
labourers have to deny themselves. The rich few 
are unable to consume the products, though able to 
purchase them ; whereas the many poor are able to 
consume but unable to buy them. 

The result is that the "business world," after a 
long period of "prosperity," is one day awakened 
suddenly, to the fact that there is a glut of com- 



198 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

modities on hand; the disappearance of profits 
frightens the manufacturers into a sharp curtailment 
of output ; the banks, knowing from bitter experience 
what is about to happen, refuse to lend money, 
since no "interest 11 can be paid them by borrowers 
unless profits are first earned ; and thus a " panic " 
is brought about. Of course, the capitalist must 
cease making goods when there is no profit in making 
them ; and thereupon, quite naturally, he discharges 
workmen and reduces wages, until the surplus stocks 
of goods on the market are disposed of in some 
manner. This brings about one of the financial and 
industrial panics, and the periods (more or less pro- 
longed and severe) of business depression which follow 
them, and which, hi every manufacturing centre, are 
marked by the presence of large numbers of workmen 
unable to secure employment, and for whom indeed 
there is none. 

There is no " civilized " country on earth that 
has not, at this present writing, its "unemployed' 1 
problem ; and it may be remarked that this problem 
only arises in those countries where our boasted 
modern civilization has made its way. 

To what result, then, are these giant industrial 
forces tending ? That they are working up to a world- 
wide crisis of some sort, is patent to every one who 
gives to the situation a moment's serious consideration. 
The forces now developing and concentrating into 



definite lines of effort are becoming uncontrollable, 
and are threatening soon to burst through all exist- 
ing governmental, social, and moral restraints. A new 
social order of some sort seems inevitable, and that at no 
distant day. But the question to which we are seeking 
an answer is this : What kind of an economic system is 
to take the place of the existing social institutions, 
after these shall have been demolished ? 

What is happening before our eyes, in this economic 
field of human activity, is the separation of mankind 
into two classes, and the widening of the gulf between 
them. One class owns, and is ever, tightening its hold 
upon, the means of production and distribution of that 
wealth which is the supreme object of human aspiration 
and effort. The other class, which has only its labour 
to sell, and can find a market for that only when the 
capitalists can use it to their own advantage, is being 
ever more rigidly held down to wages which (under the 
steadily increasing cost of living) afford but a bare, and 
at best precarious, subsistence. Wealth, and the power 
it wields, are being concentrated into fewer and fewer 
hands. But along with this concentration of wealth is 
the fact that the labouring class is constantly gaining 
force numerically, as well as gaining power through 
the more intelligent comprehension of the unfairness 
of existing conditions. Unless a solution of the 
growing antagonism between these two classes be found, 
a clash between them is inevitable. Such, at least, 



200 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

is the openly-expressed opinion of intelligent and 
competent observers of social phenomena. Which 
side will prevail ? And will the result be the absolute 
Despotism of Wealth, or will it be Socialism ? 

SOCIALISM 

As we look abroad upon the tremendous efforts 
which men are making to better their condition through 
the manufacture of " things, 11 and as we take notice of 
the very unequal distribution of the things which result 
from these efforts, we would naturally inquire what 
remedies are being canvassed for the cure of this 
great and manifest evil. The answer to such inquiry 
would be that there is at present only one remedy 
now before the people for their consideration, and 
which offers any hope of escape from this gross 
injustice. That proposed remedy is the untried 
system called Socialism. Apparently the "sovereign 
people 11 have only the alternative of continuing with 
the present system of " Capitalism, 11 or displacing it by 
some form of " Socialism. 11 

This system challenges our closest attention for 
various reasons : 

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 

Socialism is the only human system which offers a 
new social order to replace that now in existence. It 



THE SOCIALIST STANDPOINT 201 

thus stands alone in proposing a solution of what is 
recognized as the great problem of the age. 

It is proper at this point to let a moderate Socialist 
speak of the conditions which Socialism proposes to 
remedy, in order that our readers may see just how the 
social problem is viewed from that standpoint. The 
following quotations are from Mr. H. W. Laidler, in 
Waylanffs Monthly. Mr. Laidler states the social 
or economic problem from the point of view of an 
American Socialist. 

"Every age presents for solution some 
mighty problem. Now the religious, now the 
political, now the social question demands un- 
divided attention. In the age in which we live 
that which is uppermost in the minds of men is 
the social or economic question the question of the 
just distribution of the products of mankind. 

The reason for this is not far to seek. The 
last one hundred years have witnessed the indus- 
trial revolution of the ages ; the progress from 
individual production to social production, thus 
making possible the creation of ten- twenty- one 
hundred-fold more wealth with the expenditure of 
the same amount of energy. That this increased 
productivity has taken place is indisputable, but 
that the mass of the nation's workers have been 
materially benefited by this industrial revolution 
is a matter of serious dispute and the attempt 
14 



202 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

of the worker to obtain a larger and juster share 
of the product of labour constitutes the modern 
Labour Question." 

We would call the reader's attention to the state- 
ment that the mighty problem of this age is "the 
just distribution of the products of mankind."" This 
obviously is of the nature of a religious problem as 
well as an economic problem, and its very existence 
heralds the advent of a system which shall be both 
religious and economic. 

" It was Henry George who said that if a man 
of the eighteenth century a Priestley or a Frank- 
lin could have seen as in a vision this marvellous 
progress in industry, 'his heart would have 
leaped, and his nerves would have thrilled, as one 
who from a height beholds, just ahead of the 
thirst-stricken caravan, the living gleam of rust- 
ling woods and the glint of laughing waters. He 
would, in the sight of his imagination, have seen 
new forces lifting the very poorest above the 
possibility of want.' 

" And with reason would such high expectation 
be aroused; but sadly the present-day facts of 
civilization dash them completely to the earth. 
For along with this evolution from individual to 
social production has come a transfer of ownership 
of the tools and machinery of production from the 
mass of workers to a few immensely wealthy 



THE CONCENTRATION OF WEALTH 203 

capitalists. This concentration has proceeded so 
rapidly that already six thousand multi-million- 
aires and billionaires own one-fourth of the 
nation's wealth; one per cent, of our population 
possesses more than the other ninety-nine per 
cent. And to this one per cent, the whole 
industrial, social, political, and even the intellect- 
ual and ethical life of the nation is becoming 
completely subservient. How true are the state- 
ments of Bishop Spaulding upon this question : 
' If the present methods continue, a few individ- 
uals and trusts will soon control the means of 
production and distribution, and this in an era 
in which money is the mightiest force of social 
influence and dominion. To those few individ- 
uals and corporations will belong an authority and 
power greater than any history makes known 
an authority and power which are both incom- 
patible with political liberty and popular institu- 
tions. 1 " 

" But modern civilization presents another 
side. Facing the six thousand multi-millionaires, 
abounding in luxury and power, are the ten 
millions of people suffering the pangs of poverty 
poorly sheltered, under- fed, under - clothed. 
Complementary with those who obtain millions 
without any productive toil, are the mass of 



204 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

unskilled workers whose greatest exertion brings 
scarcely enough to keep body and soul together ; 
are the two millions of the nation's sons denied 
during half the year the opportunity to earn a 
livelihood ; are the tens of thousands of mothers in 
the heat and grime of sweat-shops and the death- 
dealing tenements ' sewing at once with a double 
thread a shroud as well as a shirt 1 ; are the 
seventeen hundred thousand little children of 
school age who are refused the right of an educa- 
tion, forced into the dismal, poisonous atmosphere 
of factory, shop, and mine, and there compelled 
to coin their little lives into glittering gold for 
moneyed aristocracy." 

"These are the facts. What is their mean- 
ing to the rich what to the poor ? To the rich, 
this enormous wealth means magnificent palaces, 
gorgeous wardrobes, rare and precious jewellery ; 
it means monkey and baboon dinners at which 
money flows as freely as water, at which terrapin 
is daintily eaten from silver canoes with golden 
spoons, and trust stocks are lavishly distributed as 
souvenirs of the occasion. It means a life where 
real values are lost and where money is God. To 
the poor, poverty means foul hovels, reeking ah, 
too often ! with vermin and disease, filthy rags 
as substitutes for clothing, a life of forced 



ECONOMIC CONTRASTS 205 

ignorance, of stunted body, mind, and soul, an 
existence of sickness, crime, and death. 

" ' Wealth and poverty, millionaires and beggars, 
castles and caves, luxury and squalor, painted 
parasites on the boulevard and painted poverty 
among the red lights.' This is but a suggestion 
of the social abyss of the social wrongs which 
must be righted." 

The writer from whom we have just quoted, looks, 
of course, to Man himself to bring deliverance out of 
these grievous conditions ; and he appeals to " the 
college student" to do his part in leading people 
onward to the golden age of humanity the UNIVERSAL 
BROTHERHOOD of Men. He says in conclusion : 

"Then in the name of justice, truth, and liberty 
in the name of suffering humanity in the 
name of the Master Servant of the ages, behold- 
ing in the full this human inferno, may the 
college student do his part in blazing forth to 
society the intricate pathway of social progress, 
and in leading the people onward toward the 
golden age of humanity the universal brother- 
hood of men." 

These extracts are fair samples of the statements 
and appeals by means of which the principles of 
Socialism are being propagated the world over. Our 
chief interest in them, for present purposes, lies 
in the disclosure they clearly make of the fact that 



206 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

this great movement, while aiming at the material 
welfare of humanity by a world-wide consolidation 
of human beings and human interests, is essentially 
religious in character. 

II. THE SPREAD OF SOCIALISTIC PRINCIPLES 

Socialism is gaining favour rapidly in many quarters, 
and its claims are receiving recognition by persons of 
influence well able to propagate its doctrines. 

There are, of course, many varieties of Socialism, 
and there are doctrines necessarily belonging to a 
socialistic community (such as that relating to 
marriage, of which we will speak later on) which are 
wholly repudiated by many who now advocate the 
purely economic doctrines of Socialism. We shall 
therefore treat "Socialism" generally, as meaning 
those prominent principles held and advocated by 
nearly all who call themselves "Socialists." As to 
those features of Socialism which are obnoxious to 
many zealous Socialists of to-day, it is necessary only 
to say that the acceptance at the present time of a part 
of the programme of Socialism will make it easy for 
the rising generation to accept the whole of that 
programme. 

Socialism is notably gaining favour among the 
clergy of various denominations. It is stated that 
upwards of two hundred clergymen in the vicinity of 



THE SPREAD OF SOCIALISM 207 

New York City have signed a paper committing them- 
selves to the main principles of Socialism, though not 
ready as yet to avow themselves openly as Socialists, 
because of a lingering prejudice which still clings to 
the name. 

At the recent Pan- Anglican Conference in England 
(1908) the principles of Socialism were earnestly 
advocated, and met with a decidedly sympathetic 
reception. Among the Resolutions there introduced 
were the following : 

" The Conference recognizes the ideals of 
brotherhood which underlie the Democratic 
Movement of this century " ; and that 

"The social mission and social principles of 

Christianity should be given a more prominent 

place in the study and teaching of the Church." 

This spread of Socialist principles among the clergy 

accomplishes several important results. In the first 

place, it strongly tends to impart to industrialism a 

religious aspect thus tending towards the fulfilment 

of prophecy in making the production and distribution 

of wealth a matter of religion. Furthermore, it 

furnishes a live principle, tending to unify members of 

the different dying denominations of Christendom. 

And finally, it furnishes to ministers who do not preach 

" the Gospel of God concerning His Son " a theme of 

universal interest, which, if ably discussed, is sure to 

hold the attention of their congregations. 



208 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

A circular lately issued by the " Christian Socialist 
Fellowship," quotes the following passage from the last 
annual address of Miss Frances E. Willard, founder of 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, showing 
the gain of Socialism in that direction : 

" What the Socialist desires is that the corpora- 
tion of humanity should control all production. 
Beloved comrades, this is the higher way. It 
eliminates the motives for a selfish life ; it enacts 
into our everyday life the ethics of' Christ's Gospel. 
Nothing else can bring the glad day of UNIVERSAL 
BROTHERHOOD. It is Christianity applied." 
A system which can thus be strongly advocated as 
" Christianity applied," while it is at the same time 
advocated by the most outspoken enemies of Christ, is 
certainly a thing to be seriously reckoned with. 

III. SOCIALISM A COMBINATION OF THE TEMPORAL AND 
RELIGIOUS INTERESTS OF MANKIND 

What chiefly renders Socialism an object of interest 
to us at the present time is the fact that it proposes 
to bring about that very consolidation of all human 
interests, both material and spiritual, which prophecy 
leads us to expect as the consummation of all the 
prodigious energies and activities of " Man's Day." We 
cannot fail to be deeply impressed by the fact that 
there is now looming large upon the near horizon, and 



SOCIALISM A RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT 209 

increasing in size at a very rapid rate, a System, both 
religious and economic, presenting exactly those main 
features of that Great Consolidation which were 
impressed upon the Apostle John, and which he, by 
Divine inspiration, wrote down in order that believers 
should be enabled to identify it as the masterpiece of 
Satan. 

Socialism is not merely the creed of a political party 
having certain reforms to advocate. Nor is it merely 
a school of political economy having certain financial 
and economic policies to propose. It is essentially a 
religion ; for its basis is the universal brotherhood of 
man, and the cardinal feature of its creed is faith in 
the inherent power of Consolidated Humanity to rid 
itself of all ills and miseries. To this end it proposes 
to abolish capitalism, and also the private ownership 
of the appliances of production (land, machinery, rail- 
roads, etc.), and to consolidate all mankind, and all 
human interests, into one vast organization. This 
organization will be a Federation, or Society, or 
State, wherein all men will be on an absolute 
equality, and the interests of one shall be the 
interest of all. It proposes to deal comprehensively, 
and for the benefit of all alike, with all methods of 
production, with all produce of the fields and mines 
and products of the factories, with all appliances for 
the manufacture and production of commodities of 
every sort, and with all inventions and discoveries. 



210 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

All this is based upon the sacredness of human rights ; 
and the predominant characteristic of the movement 
is avowedly religious. It is the very embodiment of 
that great rising Religion which has now confronted 
us many times in the course of this inquiry, the 
religion of Humanism. 

The "Christian Socialist Fellowship," to which 
reference has already been made, has the following 
for its avowed object : 

"Its object shall be to permeate Churches, 
Denominations, and other Religious Institutions 
with the Social Message of Jesus ; to show that 
Socialism is the Necessary Economic Expression of 
the Christian Life; to end the Class Struggle by 
establishing Industrial Democracy, and to hasten 
the Reign of Justice and Brotherhood upon 
Earth." 
The body of the circular says : 

" Not one man in a hundred believes that the 
teachings of Jesus can be applied in everyday 
practice. Socialists do." 

And the circular offers the services of " a clergyman " 
to any gatherings who wish to hear an address on the 
subject of Christian Socialism, naming several prominent 
ministers and offering " many others, including all the 
leading denominations." 

Thus the sacred human Name of the Divine Redeemer 
is being used to advance the cause of Socialism, and to 



SOCIALISM PERMEATING THE CHURCH 

secure an entrance for its principles into Christian 
Churches. The Name of Christ, too, is coupled 
directly with that of Socialism (in the term " Christian 
Socialism") as an effectual means of offsetting the 
prejudice which attaches to the latter. 

Whatever, therefore, may be the ultimate fate of 
Socialism as a system, it is certainly doing great 
service in fulfilling prophecy by " permeating the 
Churches " with the ideal of a religious system which 
makes the distribution of wealth its chief concern, a 
system which has no hope to offer of the Kingdom 
of God with Christ Jesus reigning in justice and 
righteousness on earth; but substitutes therefor the 
" Reign of Justice and Brotherhood upon the 
Earth." 

The rapid spread of Socialism among the clergy has 
also resulted in securing for the advocacy of its 
principles the immense advantage of a body of men 
trained to public speaking, whose utterances are 
invested with a certain authority, and who live at the 
expense of their congregations. It has also secured 
the further advantage of the free use of buildings in 
which people are accustomed to gather in the expecta- 
tion of hearing what will be conducive to their highest 
welfare. Thus the people who are to be converted to 
Socialism are made to bear the expense of the campaign 
planned and carried on to that end. Surely there is 
satanic cleverness in this. 



212 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

Mr. Arnold White in The Future of Britain 
speaks of the transfer of energy from theology to 
politics, which is now going on, and of the part 
which the " proletarian movement " (i.e. Socialism) is 
performing in effecting this transfer of energy. He 
says: 

" The decay of faith that marks the proletarian 
movement of Europe is accompanied by a general 
transfer of energy from theology to politics. All 
forms of Christianity have produced, and still 
produce, individual lives of saintly perfection, but 
Christianity, in the sense of its Founder, has as 
little in common with Europe as with Asia." 

" The dry rot of Sacerdotalism becomes daily 
more apparent as the Free Church pastors abandon 
the spiritual for the political arena" 

" The new doctrine of anti-militarism has been 
imposed on Christianity by the clerics, who, having 
lost their influence as theologians, would fain re- 
cover it as politicians.'" 

" We must admit that, after nineteen centuries 
of Christianity, in Christendom, with its commerce, 
competition, and coercion, Christ's followers are few. 1 
His teachings are impossible except as ideals. If 
He were to appear in the flesh, He could not call 
Himself a, Christian.' 1 ' 1 

1 And to them He is now saying, "Will ye also go 
away ? " (John vi. 67). 



THE "SOULS' THIRST" 

Mr. White further says : 

"There is abundant evidence that a spiritual 
wave, proceeding from the unrest of the world, is 
rolling in upon us." 

" For good or evil, the Evangelical and Calvin- 
istic schools are dying out ; but popular faith is not 
replaced by popular science" 

What, then, is replacing it ? Mr. White says that 
" In their souls' thirst men seek relief in the 
religion of psychical phenomena. The spread of 
Christian Science among the comfortable classes 
is an advertisement of the indelibility of the 
religious instinct." 

" Christian Science " (so-called) and " the religion of 
psychical phenomena " are forms of Humanism ; but 
they are adapted only to what Mr. White calls the 
" comfortable classes." The wicomfortable classes, and 
those who aspire to lead them, are taking up with that 
more practical species of Humanism which is the 
religious foundation of the great socialistic move- 
ment. 

Yet this candid writer confesses that " the ideal of 
Christ is the only ideal that has ever satisfied the soul of 
man."" 

Thus, when we contemplate Socialism, we behold an 
economic system founded upon the broad basis of the 
welfare of Humanity as a whole, and one which is 
gaining favour in many parts of the religious field ; 



214 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

and when we look to the end of Socialism, we see 
clearly the outlines of a huge, world-wide, all-embracing 
Monopoly. 

CAPITALISM PLUTOCRACY IN ITS 
FINAL STAGE 

It has been remarked that the alternative now 
presented to society is either to continue with the 
present economic system, " Capitalism," remedying its 
obnoxious features so far as possible, or to abolish it 
and experiment with Socialism. 

But it is appropriate at this point to call attention 
to the fact that Capitalism itself is not stationary, but, 
on the contrary, is advancing at a rapid rate ; and 
particularly is it appropriate to note the important 
fact that, if we look to the end towards which the 
existing economic system is hastening, we likewise 
behold the outlines of a huge, world-wide, all-embracing 
Monopoly. 

It seems to the writer to be a fact of tremendous 
significance that, whichever of the two economic routes 
now open to humanity may be chosen, it leads 
ultimately to a complete Consolidation, Federation, 
or Monopoly. 

Socialism is agitating for a Monopoly which shall 
be composed of all mankind " Society " in a word 
and which shall control and operate, for the benefit of 



THE GOAL OF CAPITALISM 215 

all mankind, the land, natural resources, machinery, and 
methods which are used in the making and distribution 
of commodities. 

Capitalism, meanwhile, is swiftly advancing towards 
a complete Monopoly which shall control all business 
enterprises ; and, in fact, is accomplishing this advance 
by degrees, the process of its accomplishment being the 
consolidation of corporations in various lines of business 
into Syndicates or Trusts, and these into still larger 
Trusts. Notwithstanding reactionary movements of 
various kinds, governmental opposition and adverse 
legislation, this process of consolidation goes steadily 
on ; and its inevitable end, if not interrupted, must 
obviously be the formation of a single, all-embracing 
Monopoly. 

This end of the present tendencies of Capitalism has 
been clearly in view for several decades, and has been 
frequently pointed out by those who have no know- 
ledge whatever of the predictions of Scripture to which 
we have referred. As an example of this expectation 
a few quotations from a prominent writer on Socialist 
themes will be given. The following passage was 
published in 1889 (twenty years ago), and is by the 
Editor of Wilslwre's Magazine : 

"The process of concentration is irresistible 
and inevitable. . . . That this latter process of 
concentration is now going on, is exemplified by 
the buying up of the Cotton Seed Oil Trust, and 



216 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

very recently the White Lead Trust, by the 
Rockefeller people. 

"It is the big fish eating the little fish, the 
survival of the fittest ; and the logical end must 
be that every industry in this country will finally 
be owned and controlled by ONE HUGE TRUST." 
Much has happened since these words were written, 
and every pertinent event has tended to confirm the 
prediction which they record. The steady advance of 
industrialism along the lines of concentration and 
merger, in order to eliminate the waste of competition, 
has brought mankind very much nearer to the pre- 
dicted Monopoly. Other factors besides the elimination 
of wasteful competition are operating to secure this 
result, though that doubtless supplies the main motive- 
power of the movement. The pride and ambition of 
man also urge it on ; for those who succeed in getting 
" control " of a particular line of industry, and succeed 
in organizing it into a vast machine for returning 
profits to themselves, are stimulated by that success to 
reach out for the control of other industries ; and their 
profits furnish the " capital " needed for this purpose. 
This has brought into existence certain "groups" of 
associated industries, controlled by the same " interests," 
which are well known, and which have names by which 
they are identified in financial circles; though for 
prudential reasons they have not actually assumed the 
form of a single consolidated enterprise. 



THE IDEA OF BIGNESS 217 

The idea of bigness is another stimulating notion of 
the day. For some reason, not easy to define, the 
mere fact of bulk in any human work seems to evoke 
man's wonder and admiration. The size of steam-vessels, 
the height of buildings, the length of railway trains, 
and the like, furnish figures which have an abiding 
relish for the modern man, who seems to read in them 
the dimensions of his own greatness. For this reason 
the size of the Steel Trust, and the extent of its 
operations, form the theme of admiring comment, to 
the extent even of suppressing any undesirable curiosity 
on the part of the general public as to how the 
interests of the community are affected by the ex- 
istence, influence, and sustenance of that gigantic 
institution. 

Thirteen years after the above-quoted passage, which 
predicted that present industrial tendencies must 
inevitably lead to the formation of one huge Trust, 
the same writer, in commenting upon changes then 
taking place in a certain group of leading industries, 
said : 

"These industries, owing to the plethora of 
capital, are already at the point of crystallization 
into monopolies, and the advent of such an un- 
precedented flood of money " (as would come, for 
example, from the Government purchase of the 
railroads) " would not only complete the process, 
but would cause the amalgamation of all the trusts 



218 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

into one huge organization, THE COMING TRUST OF 
TRUSTS." 

It may be observed at this point that the process by 
which this " Coming Trust of Trusts " is being brought 
into existence is, in large measure, automatic ; that is 
to say, it proceeds without direct human design or 
volition. But it is difficult to suppose that any 
orderly sequence of events, indicating purpose and 
leading to a definite result, can proceed apart from a 
directing Intelligence capable of planning it, and an 
operating Power capable of carrying the plan into 
effect. It is reasonable, therefore, to assume that 
there is a mighty Being back of all these movements in 
human affairs. And this is also to be inferred from 
the further fact that these movements continue their 
progress without interruption, though generation after 
generation of human beings pass away without 
beholding the end towards which they are steadily 
tending. The great inclusive process, whereof these 
economic movements are but special phases, may 
properly be called a process of " Evolution " ; and this 
process is observable everywhere in human affairs, and 
nowhere else in the observable universe. 1 

These considerations seem to leave us no alternative 
but to conclude that it is the spirit who is directing 
human destinies, "the spirit that now works in the 

1 See The World and its God, by the writer, chapters 
xvi.-xxiii. 



THE "HINGE OF DESTINY 1 ' 219 

children of disobedience," who is carrying on the 
evolutionary process to an end coveted by himself; and 
since we know that Satan's aim is to secure to himself 
the worship which belongs to God, it is not surprising 
that we should find the intellectual part of modern 
society actually attributing Divine power to Evolution. 
Further reference will be made to this. 

But the Bible, in foretelling the coming of the 
" Trust of Trusts," the great Religious and Industrial 
Monopoly, speaks also of the coming of a great Leader, 
having endowments of such extraordinary kind as 
shall enable him to grasp and direct its prodigious 
energies and complicated affairs. 

Likewise, in the anticipations of present-day society, 
we find, in association with the expectation of the great 
Syndicate, that of the coming of the great leader, the 
" Superman. 11 For the advent of this fearful being the 
minds of men are being prepared in various ways. We 
quote further from Mr. Wilshire, first to show the 
expectation that the great sociological change is close 
at hand : 

" We are now swinging on the hinge of destiny. 
We are in the transition stage of the greatest 
sociological event that history has yet recorded. 
Let him who runs read. 11 

But this change is not to be merely industrial and 
political, a mere re-arrangement of the distribution of 
wealth. It is, in its essence, a religious upheaval. 



220 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

Thus, our commentator tells us that the end towards 
which the mighty social movements are sweeping 
is 

" the greatest the mind of man can conceive, the 
perfect relation of perfected man to a perfected uni- 
verse the birth of the SUPERMAN. The striving for 
this is RELIGION. It is the true worship of God." 
And again : 

"Man must be united to humanity in an 
organization at once perfectly democratic and 
perfectly autocratic. With this advent all 
humanity will be at one with God, and every man 
will be a god" 

In describing the coming organization as one in 
which all men are united, and as being at once perfectly 
democratic and perfectly autocratic, this writer has, 
with marvellous precision and conciseness, stated the 
prominent identifying characteristics of the system of 
Antichrist as given in the prophetic Scriptures. The 
features of this system, upon which emphasis is there 
laid, are its universal or world-wide extent; its in- 
clusion of both the spiritual and material interests of 
mankind ; its perfectly democratic character in that the 
entire mass of humanity are on the same level ; its 
perfectly autocratic character in that it is absolutely 
controlled and directed by the Superman, Antichrist ; 
and finally, its exaltation of Man to the place of God, 
thereby fulfilling the promise which lured the human 



THE SWAY OF THE "SUPERMAN" 221 

race into its long career, now rapidly nearing an end, 
namely, the promise, " Ye shall not surely die : ... ye 
shall be as God." 

This result is now so close at hand that a mere 
observer of current events, laying no claim to any 
prophetic gift, can describe its leading features with 
clearness and accuracy. 

Thus, again we have occasion to remind ourselves 
that, whenever we follow one of the present-day move- 
ments to its end, we arrive at the same result, namely, 
Man exalted by his own achievements to the supreme 
place. Whenever we count the number, it is "the 
Number of MAN." 

Certain it is, then, that mankind is rapidly approach- 
ing the great economic change from industrial com- 
petition to industrial monopoly. Every active agency 
operating at this time in human affairs, whether 
religious or commercial, is helping it along. Whether 
Society shall capture the Trusts (as the Socialists fondly 
anticipate) : or whether the Trusts (consolidated into 
the " Trust of Trusts ") shall capture Society : or 
whether the antagonistic systems shall collide in a 
mutually destructive conflict, or unite in a peaceful 
confluence out of which the final System is to emerge : 
the result in any case will inevitably be the Religio- 
Comrnercial Prodigy, the Churchified Industrial 
Monopoly, over which the " Superman " will exercise 
his brief but absolute sway. 



222 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

MR. WELLS' SOCIALISM. THE " COLLECTIVE 
INTELLIGENCE/ 1 "GOOD WILL IN MAN" 

At this point it will be appropriate to cite the testi- 
mony of another competent witness, one who "calls 
himself a Socialist," who has " gone into it personally, 
and has studied the Socialist movement closely and 
intimately at first hand." This witness is the well- 
known writer, Mr. H. G. Wells, than whom there is, 
perhaps, none more competent to discuss social problems 
in a broad way. Mr. Wells is, moreover, by reason of 
his high intelligence and great candour, entitled to a 
respectful hearing. He has given in his book, New 
Worlds for Old, an exceedingly lucid, readable, and 
non-technical exposition of a very mild type of 
Socialism. 

The feature of Mr. Wells' book which chiefly 
concerns us is his clear recognition and forceful state- 
ment of the fact that, in order to the establishment 
and maintenance of the " ideal Socialist state," there 
must be a competent directing- Head, endowed with 
intelligence of' an order such as no human being has ever 
yet possessed. 

If, then, Mr. Wells is right in this important parti- 
cular, it will be necessary, before mankind can enjoy 
the blessings of ideal Socialism, first, that the requisite 
intellectual genius be developed, and second, that the 
affairs of collective humanity be completely subordin- 



THE "COLLECTIVE MIND'" 

ated to its authority. Moreover, in this view of the 
matter, the continuance of Socialism, after it has once 
been established, will be possible only upon the 
condition that the required, and as yet undeveloped, 
directing intelligence be renewed from generation 
to generation, and be permanently entrusted with 
the responsibilities of government. 

Mr. Wells says, without qualification, that what is 
needed for the realization of the Socialist's ideals is 

" the collective mind of humanity, the soul and 

moral being of mankind " (p. 277). 
Again he says : 

" Now it is only under an intelligent collective 

mind that any of the dreams of these constructive 

professions can attain an effective realization " 

(p. 281). 

And he shows great discernment in saying of the 
" classic Socialism " of Karl Marx, that " it has no 
psychology.'" That would be, indeed, a fatal lack in 
any economic system that is to command the approval 
of the influential sections of the community. 

It is not entirely clear just what Mr. Wells means 
by the " collective mind of humanity," and perhaps he 
does not quite know himself, seeing that the thing 
does riot as yet exist, or at least has not yet been 
localized. But it is clear enough that Mr. Wells 
perceives the need of superhuman intellectual endow- 
ments for the proper management of the affairs of a 



224 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

consolidated Humanity. Some towering genius must 
be at the head of such a system if it is not to fall 
immediately to pieces. The " collective responsibility," 
incident to the " collective ownership " of all land and 
public utilities, certainly demands a corresponding and 
commensurate "collective intelligence." Where, then, is 
it to come from ; and, when it arrives, how is it to 
secure authority over the affairs of "collective 
humanity " ? 

Mr. Wells suggests that the needed intelligence is 
to be developed by teaching ; and he defines " Human 
Nature " as a plastic, " teachable " thing (p. 219). But 
this suggestion raises the further questions What sort 
of doctrine is required for the development of the 
collective intelligence ? Whence are to come the 
teachers who are to instruct the people therein ? And 
what force will constrain the "sovereign people' 1 to 
submit to such instruction until the collective intelli- 
gence shall have been developed? The answers to 
these questions are by no means obvious. 

Mr. Wells is not a Socialist of the ordinary fatalistic 
sort one that regards the coming of Socialism as the 
inevitable outworking of a blind and impersonal 
evolutionary process. On the contrary, he plainly 
discerns and clearly describes some very formidable 
obstacles in its path. The first of these has been 
already noticed, namely, the lack of the intellectual 
ability and capacity required for the management of 



PEOPLE AS THEY ARE 

the " ideal Socialist State," that gigantic and complex 
political institution that is to own, develop, administer, 
and operate all land and industries incident thereto 
(mining, agriculture, etc.), and all public utilities, to 
supervise the health of the entire community, to 
superintend the education of children, etc. 

Then again, Mr. Wells is keen enough to see, and 
frank enough to say, that one of the chief obstacles in 
the way of the organization and proper management of 
such a stupendous and complicated institution as the 
" Socialistic State," lies in the present constitution of 
human nature. As to this he says : 

"With people just as they are now, with their 
prejudicies, their ignorances, their misapprehensions, 
their unchecked vanities and greeds and jealousies, 
their crude and misguided instincts, their irrational 
traditions, NO SOCIALIST STATE CAN EXIST, no better 
State can exist than the one we now have with 
all its squalor and cruelty " (p. 219). 
This is a great deal for a Socialist to admit ; and it 
is quite enough, we should suppose, to destroy Mr. 
Wells' influence with the masses of the "sovereign 
people." Moreover, since Mr. Wells so clearly per- 
ceives that no better social order than that we now 
have is possible so long as human nature remains what 
it now is, we should expect him to reach the logical 
conclusion that an essential pre-requisite to the attain- 
ment of his ideal State is a change of human nature. 



226 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

But he quite illogically concludes from his premises that 
what is needed by humanity is, not a change of nature, 
but a " change of ideas' 1 '' (p. 219). 

What Mr. Wells says in effect is, that " the people " 
have the right to the ownership of all land, public 
utilities, productive appliances, etc., and have the right 
to govern their own affairs, but that they are as yet 
unfit to be invested with these rights, because (1) so 
long as human nature remains what it now is, no 
better State is possible than that which now exists ; 
and (2) collective humanity lacks the "collective in- 
telligence,' 1 which is absolutely needed for the manage- 
ment of such a vast and intricate social system as the 
Socialists propose. And Mr. Wells knows of no way 
of effecting the needed change in human nature, and of 
developing the needed " collective intelligence," except 
by sound teaching. 

Now this manifestly presupposes first, that teachers 
are available and ready to teach just the sound and 
fruitful doctrine (whatever it may be, Mr. Wells does 
not formulate it) that will effect the desired transfor- 
mation of human nature, and that will also develop 
the collective intelligence which is the sine qua non of 
Socialism ; and, second, that the " Sovereign people " 
will be pleased to listen to the teachers of this (as yet 
unidentified) doctrine, tuniing a deaf ear to all others, 
until such time (how many years or centuries we are 
not told) as may be required to accomplish the above 



" RIGHTS " OF THE PEOPLE 227 

stated results. But it is quite certain that the people, 
being " just as they are now, with their prejudices, 
their ignorances, 1 ' etc, as described by Mr. Wells, will 
not hear of any such delay in the assumption and en- 
joyment by them of their " rights," and will not submit 
to the schooling of teachers such as Mr. Wells refers 
to if any such there be. One of the "rights" of 
which the sovereign people are most jealous, and 
which they have learned to exercise most freely, is the 
right to just such teaching as pleases their itching 
ears. 

There is no lack of teachers and teaching of this sort. 
Accordingly, the people " heap to themselves teachers " 
because they have " itching ears " ; and they teach the 
acceptable doctrine that the people have not only the 
right to assume the ownership of all property for the 
benefit of collective humanity, but that they have also 
the wisdom and intelligence needed for the proper 
administration of the ideal Socialist state. 

Mr. Wells, however, is right; and for that reason 
his message will not be heeded. For how may we 
expect that they shall do wisely who admittedly lack 
wisdom ? The " collective humanity," as it now exists, 
does indeed lack both the character and the intelligence 
needed for the maintenance of an ideal social order. 
Nevertheless, Mr. Wells allies himself with those who 
promulgate the popular doctrine of the "rights of 
man," thus using his influence to precipitate the crisis 



228 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

wherewith society is now menaced, namely, that of 
being subject to force divorced Jrom wisdom absolute 
power without the intelligence needed for its proper 
use. Nothing worse could well be imagined. 

But we have not yet mentioned the ultimate agency 
in which Mr. Wells confides for the accomplishment of 
the radical transformation which he rightly deems to 
be a necessary preliminary to the introduction of 
Socialism ; and here we get a peep at Mr. Wells 1 
religion. For the performance of this great work he 
looks hopefully to what he calls the " Good Will " in 
man. It is quite evident that, to this indefinite and 
shadowy agency, Mr. Wells, in his soul (which is 
plainly not devoid of reverence) attributes the power of 
a god, and he therefore reverentially writes its name 
with initial capitals. He sees in human conduct and 
human history the manifestations of a force that is 
" constantly working to make order out of casualty ; 
beauty out of confusion ; justice, kindliness, mercy, out 
of cruelty and inconsiderate pressure. 11 We might 
properly join issue with this statement, inasmuch as 
the " force " to which Mr. Wells here refers is simply the 
influence exerted in human society by Christianity and 
the Gospel. But that is, for the moment, beside the 
question, for we are just now seeking the agency in- 
voked by Mr. Wells to prepare the way for Socialism. 
Of this alleged " force " he says : 

"For our present purpose it will be sufficient 



PRE-REQUISITES TO SOCIALISM 229 

to speak of this force that struggles and tends to 
make and do as GOOD WILL " (p. 5). 

"There is a secular amelioration of life, and 
it is brought about by GOOD WILL working 
through the efforts of men " (p. 7). 

" There is no untutored naturalness in Socialism, 
no uneducated blind force on our side" (then 
clearly Mr. Wells' god is not Evolution). 
"Socialism is made of struggling GOOD WELL, 
made out of a conflict of wills " (p. 219). 
And the introduction of Socialism will be a task 
demanding all the energies of this deity ; for, says Mr. 
Wells 

" if we really contemplate Socialism as our achieve- 
ment, to impose guiding ideas and guiding habits, 
we have to co-ordinate all the Good Will that is 
active or latent in our world in one constructive 
plan "(p. 219). 

We need not dwell longer upon this. If Socialism 
is to await- the transformation of human nature, and 
the development of the " collective intelligence," and 
if these great achievements are to be accomplished by 
the co-ordination of all the Good Will (active or 
latent) in our world, in one constructive plan, it will 
never come. There is, in that case, no more to be 
feared from Mr. Wells 1 Socialism than from his 
Martians. One is just as much the product of his 
fertile imagination as were the others. Unhappily, the 



230 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

Socialism which now menaces humanity is that which 
is propagated by appealing, not to the good will, but 
to the ill will in man. This is an appeal which is sure 
of a response. The masses of mankind are easily moved 
to envy and hatred of the prosperous classes. So long 
as people are "just as they now are, with their 
prejudices, their ignorances, and their unchecked 
vanities, and greeds, and jealousies," the appeals which 
will move them to the extent necessary to bring about 
a social revolution are those addressed to their 
prejudices, their ignorances, their vanities, greeds, and 
jealousies. The Socialism which is propagated by 
appeals of this sort is the Socialism that is to be 
feared. 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE TRUSTS. 
"THE GREAT PROBLEM OF THE AGE." 

i 
We quoted above the statement recently made by 

Mr. Alexander Graham Bell, that " competition as an 
element in business is going out, and monopolies, which 
are opposed to competition, are coming in." The 
recently-published views of this exceptionally com- 
petent observer of human affairs are worthy of further 
notice. Mr. Bell says : 

"The destruction of competition by powerful 
organizations seems to be inevitable. It is prob- 



THE "PROBLEM OF THE AGE" 231 

ably the most characteristic feature of the age in 
which we live-, and it seems to represent an ad- 
vanced position in our civilization, reached by a 
gradual process of evolution with which man can- 
not cope" l 

This is a weighty testimony to the mightiness of that 
power which Mr. Bell calls " Evolution," and which 
has in hand the development of our scientific civiliza- 
tion. That man cannot cope with it, and that the 
destruction of competition by means of it seems 
inevitable, are propositions to which we must yield our 
assent. 

Mr. Bell further says : 

"A glance backward over the history of the 
struggle will assure us that these great and power- 
ful organizations have come to stay." 
In view of the great menace to humanity to which 
the existence of these powerful organizations gives rise, 
Mr. Bell declares that 

" What to do with the Trusts has become the 
great problem of the age." 

But would it not be more logical to say that 
the great problem of the age is, " What are the 
Trusts going to do with us ? " If these power- 
ful organizations are the creations of that mighty 
god " Evolution," " with which man cannot cope," it 
would seem idle to ask what puny man is to do with 
1 World's Work for March 1909, 



232 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

them, and quite futile to formulate measures for 
dealing with them. The futility of such proceeding 
very clearly appears from consideration of the remedies 
which Mr. Bell discusses. There are, he thinks, only 
two possible remedies, either (1) to control by legis- 
lation the amount of profits the Trusts may be per- 
mitted to make ; or (2) to buy them out, and let the 
Government run their business. The latter remedy 
is considered by Mr. Bell to be impracticable ; and 
indeed it is far more probable that the Trusts will buy 
out (or capture) the Government and run its business. 
Mr. Bell therefore advocates the other remedy; but 
if this be the only recourse of society against the 
menace of the great monopolies, then there is practi- 
cally no remedy at all. It is not possible for a 
legislature either to ascertain or to limit the profits of 
a corporation ; and, moreover, it is far easier for the 
monopolies to control the legislature, than for the 
legislature to control the monopolies. 

We may, therefore, count Mr. Bell among the 
competent witnesses who testify that the coming of 
the Great Monopoly is inevitable. 

CAPITALISM ITS DEFENSIVE MEASURES 

It may be safely asserted, as a general proposition 
to which there are few exceptions, that every man who 
is not a " capitalist " would like to be one. The main 



ground of objection to capitalism as an economic 
system is simply that, under its operation, only a very 
few persons can become capitalists, all others being 
apparently foredoomed, by iron necessity, to lives of un- 
congenial and poorly requited labour, the fruits of which 
go to swell the profits of the limited capitalistic class. 

But, so long as this system continues to hold sway 
in the realm of economics, the enormous power which 
wealth confers upon its owners will remain in the hands 
of the capitalists ; and it goes without saying that the 
instinct of self-preservation will impel them to use that 
power in every possible way for the maintenance of the 
system upon which depends their welfare, and all that 
their hearts may cherish and desire. It does not come 
within the scope of this work to discuss all the defensive 
measures which are being elaborated and used for the 
purpose of protecting the present economic system 
against the menace of Socialism, and of establishing 
and extending its power and influence. The political 
discussions of the day afford sufficient information 
regarding the influence of the " vested interests " over 
legislatures and other governmental institutions, and re- 
garding the manner in which that influence is being used. 

But the system is menaced by an internal danger, 
namely, the possibility that it may break down by 
reason of its very complexity and the extreme delicacy 
of its multifarious adjustments. These details are 
becoming so numerous and intricate as to be beyond 
16 



234 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

the grasp of the ordinary human mind. They require 
for their mastery men of extraordinary genius, and 
genius of a new order. As the scope and intricacies of 
our economic system increase, that increase creates the 
demand for men of corresponding capacity. If such 
men be not developed, the complicated, high-pressure, 
industrial machine, whose speed is ever accelerating, 
will most assuredly escape from the control of its 
managers, and dash itself to pieces. 

In view of this tendency, it is highly interesting to 
note the remarkable wisdom and foresight displayed 
by some of our industrial leaders at this critical time, 
in making provision for the training and develop- 
ment of a new order of industrial geniuses. It is 
a notorious fact that the control of the educational 
machinery of the world is passing (if it has not already 
passed) into the hands of the capitalists. In fact, the 
" higher education " has become a matter so costly as 
to be beyond the reach of all but a favoured few. 

Thus the "control" of the industrial machinery, 
and of the educational machinery, has come into the 
same hands; and those who grasp these great forces 
are intelligently and systematically planning for the 
" uniting of all movements for social progress." l The 

1 For evidence of the extent to which the American 
Colleges are devoting their energies to the maintenance of 
Capitalism, see " Polyglots in Temples of Babel," Cosmo- 
politan for June, 1909. 



THE "SOCIAL ECONOMIST" 235 

friend who called my attention to this important 
development of our scientific civilization spoke of it as 
a " daring conception of the political economist " ; and 
he very pertinently said : " When we consider that 
this conception emanates from the executive head of 
an organization of national and international influence, 
successful for many years in bringing religious and 
reform activities into unity ; that this organization 
finds its supporters among the greatest capitalists of 
our day ; and that the latter definitely plan to bring 
such a type of being as the ' Social Economist ' into 
existence, one's interest deepens immensely." 

This new type of human genius, the "Social 
Economist," which it is the purpose of these central- 
izing agencies to bring into existence, is to be a man 
(or type of man) capable of handling and directing the 
newly developed and highly complicated social forces 
and instrumentalities. Just as the " Captains of 
Industry" have been developed for the purpose of 
handling the peculiar problems, and to direct the great 
energies, of the corporations and trusts, such as the 
United States Steel Corporation, so the leaders of 
industrial progress perceive that there has now arisen 
the need of " Social Economists," who shall be able to 
grasp the still more complex affairs, and direct the vaster 
energies, of the new Social Order, which the coalescence 
of these great corporations is bringing into existence. 

The society referred to in the foregoing quotation 



236 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

is The Charity Organization of the City of New York ; 
and the executive head of that society has lately been 
appointed the " Schiff Professor of SOCIAL ECONOMY " 
in Columbia University. This is an entirely new depart- 
ment of education. It was founded by Mr. Jacob H. 
Schiff,, a prominent and wealthy citizen of New York, 
and a well-known philanthropist. 

The motive which prompted this endowment is 
doubtless the sincere conviction that mankind will be 
benefited thereby. Many other rich men are making 
use of their wealth, in one way and another, for the 
supposed advantage of society as a whole, and with 
disinterested motives. But these uses of surplus 
wealth are simply contributing to the fulfilment of 
prophecy in aiding the development of that super- 
lative human being who is to control, for a brief but 
brilliant period of time, the affairs of Consolidated 
Humanity. 

Other Universities have (I understand) already 
followed this lead in establishing departments of 
"Social Economy "; and the results of these wise 
measures will soon be apparent. 

The scope and aims of this new department of 
Social Economy are well stated in the inaugural 
address of the first Schiff Professor, Mr. Edward T. 
Devine, which address has been published under the 
title of "Efficiency and Relief. A Programme of 
SOCIAL WORK." One of the opening paragraphs of this 



THE THREE PROBLEMS " OF MAN 237 

address will suffice for our present purposes, as it gives 
the keynote of the whole : 

" MAN has faced three extraordinary problems. 
The first was the simplest : the taking possession 
of the physical world, the appropriation of natural 
forces. The second was more complex : the 
organization of industry, the working out of an 
industrial system. The third is the most per- 
plexing: THE SPIRITUAL DIRECTION OF HUMAN 
AFFAIRS." 

In these few words we have a clear statement of the 
idea of the consolidation of human affairs, and the 
bringing of that consolidation under spiritual direction. 
And not only so, but the intimation is plainly given, 
that, when this is brought about, Man's task will be 
accomplished ; for it is Man who has faced these three 
" extraordinary problems " ; and Man is now addressing 
himself to the solution of the last and most perplexing 
one. 

We ask particular attention to the fact that the 
system described by this professor of the new branch 
of Social Economy is, in every essential particular, 
identical with that predicted in Rev. xiii. In this 
Programme of Social Work we see the great intellect- 
ual energies, which are controlled by the higher 
education of the day, directed towards the fulfilment 
of that prophecy. The Programme of Social Work 
embraces the development of the Social organization, 



238 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

the training of Social organizers and Social economists, 
the inculcation of the Social spirit, and the diligent 
impression upon the public mind of the Social point 
of view. 

It is noticeable also that, while many of the clergy 
are taking up the cause of Socialism (which, though 
similar in name, is a radically different system from 
the social organization proposed by Prof. Devine), 
there are, on the other hand, a number of the largest 
and most influential Churches that have passed into 
the hands of the capitalists, and are liberally supported 
by them. The cause of capitalism has also its doughty 
champions among the clergy, such, for example, as Chan- 
cellor Day, of Syracuse University, defender of the 
Standard Oil Company, and author of The Raid on Pros- 
perity, an attack on the policies of President Roosevelt. 

But whether men be working in one or the other 
of these hostile parties of Social organizers, all are 
working towards precisely the same end, namely, the 
consolidation of all human affairs, the giving of 
" spiritual direction " thereto, and eventually the exalta- 
tion of the Superman, the great " Social Economist," 
to the head of that Consolidation. 

THE PREDICTED END OF CAPITALISM 

The devotion of man to the heaping up of money 
is the outcome of three prominent traits of the unre- 



DEVOTION TO MONEY-GETTING 239 

generate human being, namely, selfishness, unbelief, and 
the vain-glory of life. 

1. It has been truly said that whenever one man 
receives a dollar he has not earned, another man has 
earned a dollar he did not receive. Every one of the 
colossal fortunes of the day exists because of the 
impoverishment of many whose labour has gone to 
the production of the wealth that constitutes them. 
Business principles are frankly the quintessence of 
selfishness ; so that no further argument or proof are 
needed to establish the point that devotion to the 
accumulation of money proceeds from selfishness. 

2. Devotion to the accumulation of wealth is also 
an evidence of unbelief and lack of trust in God ; for 
those who truly trust Him have the sure promise of 
His unfailing providence. Their trust is not "in 
uncertain riches, but in the living God, Who giveth 
us richly all things to enjoy" (1 Tim. vi. 17). 

3. Finally, the possession of great wealth is a mark 
of distinction, giving to the possessor thereof a place 
of prominence among men, and making him the object 
of attentions that are pleasing to the natural heart. 
Thus the vain-glory of life incites to the heaping up of 
money in these last days, in which, because of their demo- 
cratic character, the honours and distinctions for which 
men strove in other days have largely lost their value. 

There is no reason whatever to suppose that an 
appeal to the very rich, in the name of humanity, and 



240 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

for altruistic considerations, to forego the further 
accumulation of riches, will be of the slightest avail ; 
for there is scarcely a man among " modern men " who, 
with the same opportunities, would not use them to 
the fullest extent for his own benefit. 

Neither will denunciations of the " criminally rich n 
and "malefactors of great wealth," though coming 
from the highest official station, have the smallest effect 
in staying this passion for the heaping up riches in the 
last days. 

But God is not unmindful of the use which many of 
those who possess great riches are making of them, or 
of the sufferings caused thereby to millions of human 
beings. Jehovah of Hosts has His own plan for dealing 
with the evils of Capitalism, and has given His word of 
comfort to those of His people who may suffer therefrom. 

In James v. 1-8, we have a passage of Scripture 
which wonderfully illuminates the present stage of 
Industrialism. That this passage relates to the end- 
times is certain, because it is specifically addressed to 
those who have heaped up treasure " in the last days," 
(this is the literal rendering of ver. 3). Moreover, 
the counsel it gives to the " brethren," whose endurance 
was to be tested by the accumulation of these fortunes, 
is to wait patiently " until the coming of the Lord." 
This is a plain intimation that, when the period of 
swollen fortunes should arrive, then " the coming of the 
Lord draweth nigh" (ver. 8), so near, indeed, that 



THE "RICH MEN" 241 

they who suffer by reason of these evil conditions need 
formulate no plans for their own relief. The Lord's 
coming will bring deliverance to them before they 
can accomplish anything for themselves. 

The prominent features of this passage, which conveys 
a message of special importance at the present time, 
are the following : 

First. A class of " rich men " is addressed. It is 
doubtful if such a class ever existed in the previous 
history of mankind. There have been rich men, of 
course (though hardly in the modern sense) ; but there 
has been no class of people whose common character- 
istic was simply that they were "rich." There have 
been aristocrats, nobility, upper and lower classes, 
educated and uneducated classes, high caste and low 
caste, gentry and peasantry, literary groups, musical, 
artistic, scientific, political, etc. But in our day there 
is a distinct class of "rich men," a financial group, 
whose bond is simply that of wealth, its possession, its 
use, and particularly its augmentation. These "rich 
men" have their own separate and special interests, 
their own mode of living, their own " society," pleasures, 
entertainments, amusements, etc. What distinguishes 
them from other men is nothing more, or less, or other, 
than that they are " rich." And it may be remarked 
that what would have been regarded as a fortune one 
generation back would not to-day admit its possessor 
to the much envied class of " rich men." 



242 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

Second. The rich men are admonished to weep, 
howling for the miseries that are coming upon them. 
The precise nature of the miseries which are to 
threaten this plutocratic class is not stated, the lan- 
guage of verses 2 and 3 being symbolical. But 
nothing that could happen would make a plutocrat so 
miserable as the threatened loss of his money ; and that 
such is the nature of the predicted calamity is plain 
enough from the words, " Your riches have rotted." l 
The significance of this appears to be that the great 
horded piles of wealth have become valueless. Such 
would be the case if, for example, a socialistic govern- 
ment should declare all railroads, manufactories, etc., in 
which the money of the wealthy is invested, to be the 
rightful property of the people at large, i.e. of" Society." 
The evidences of the riches, i.e. the stocks, bonds, and 
other "investment securities" would remain, but the 
value thereof would have decayed. The riches would 
have " rotted." In like manner, the words " Your gold 
and silver has been eaten away ; and the canker of them 
shall be for a testimony against you, and shall eat your 
flesh as fire," indicate, not the loss of fortunes in ordinary 
ways, but the actual eating out of the value of posses- 
sions, and that by a process which will entail poignant 
anguish to their owners, comparable to fire gnawing 
at their vitals. Moreover, these "miseries" are not 

1 The author is using in these comments the literal 
renderings given in Bagster's Englishman's Greek N,T, 



HEAPING UP TREASURE 243 

merely coming upon individual members of the wealthy 
class, but upon the entire group of " rich men." 
Nothing but a radical change in the social order , such as 
the abolition of private ownership of capital, would 
bring about such a result. 

Third. The passage indicates a period or era of the 
world's history wherein there shall be a very marked 
accumulation of wealth something far beyond the 
ordinary fortunes of those previously reputed to be 
rich in a few hands. The specific charge against 
these rich men is that they have "heaped treasure 
together. 11 Here is a heaping up of treasure the 
making of great piles of wealth and a devotion to 
that process as the business of life. Heaping up riches 
is the all-absorbing occupation of these men, employing 
all their energies, occupying their thoughts, and forming 
the topic of their conversation. 

The expression " heaps " of treasure aptly indicates 
the fabulous accumulations which a few men of this 
generation have amassed; and this era of heaping 
together of riches in amounts which render their 
owners conspicuous, and which separate them into a 
special class, began but a few years ago. So rapidly 
has this process of accumulation of wealth come about, 
and so rapidly is it running its predicted course, that 
the culmination of the era which it especially charac- 
terises must of necessity be very close at hand. 

It is estimated, on the basis of Government Census 



244 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

Reports, that the wealth of the United States has been 
increased six-fold in the past fifty years. But this 
prodigious increase of wealth has not tended to equalize 
the economic conditions of the people. On the con- 
trary, the treasure has been " heaped together "" into the 
hands of a very small and steadily decreasing number 
of people ; and the inequality between the very rich and 
the very poor is greater than ever before. It is 
estimated that the bulk of the wealth of the United 
States is in the hands of about 250,000 persons. 

Fourth. The prophecy foretells that, along with 
this amassing of treasure by a few rich men, there will 
be suffering so great as to cause loud outcries ; and that 
the cries of the sufferers are so piteous as to evoke the 
special assurance that they have not been unheeded 
in heaven as on earth, but have " entered into the ears 
of the Lord of Hosts.' 1 

Such suffering exists to-day, and is most acute in 
those very centres of human activity where the heaped- 
up treasures are procured. Such suffering exists in this 
country at a time of abundant harvests, and when 
barns and warehouses and stores are filled with the 
produce of the field, and with the products of human 
industry. 

These cries of suffering human beings are a con- 
spicuous feature of modern " civilization " ; and, in 
the midst of the superabundance which the bounty 
of God has provided, they convict man of failure to 



HUMAN INCOMPETENCE 245 

administer righteousness and justice even in the things 
upon which man himself has bestowed no labour. On 
this testimony, man is justly adjudged to be utterly 
incompetent to manage his own affairs, even to the 
extent of relieving destitution, and the suffering it 
entails, and that in the midst of super-abundant 
wealth. And, therefore, the judgment of God, which 
has waited long, draws near. For if the man of 
to-day is unable or unwilling to establish a social 
system which shall at least be free from the foul 
blot of cruel injustice and indifference to the miseries 
of the poor, and that shall put at least a limit to the 
oppressive power of sordid selfishness, rapacity, and 
greed of gain, it is the sublimity of folly to indulge in 
the promise and hope that a better condition will be 
established by the man of to-morrow. It is presump- 
tion and folly for the man of this generation to speak 
for the man of the next generation ; and even if he 
could certify better things of the latter it would not 
relieve himself from condemnation. The man of to-day 
has no warrant to speak for, or to promise anything on 
behalf of, the man of to-morrow. Yet he not only 
does so, but he even seems to think that, by predicting 
better and more equitable conditions in some indefinite 
future time, he is thereby excusing his own selfish and 
unjust use of the opportunities which the existing system 
has afforded him. 

But already the era of multiplication of wealth has 



246 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

proceeded far enough at least to prove beyond all doubt 
that increase of prosperity does not tend to improve the 
character and condition of man. On the contrary, it 
serves only to excite his lust of gain and pleasure, and 
to develop a state of society wherein there may exist 
at one end criminal indulgence, and at the other 
abject misery. 

It is a very common practice of the day to solicit 
admiration for this glorious era of "progress" and 
"prosperity," by parading large figures showing the 
great gains which have been made in various directions. 
But if our scientific civilization is to be judged by the 
statistics of its gains, then it is condemned by its own 
figures; for these show that the gains in wealth, 
commerce, size of cities, miles of railroads, tonnage of 
ships, etc., whereof the age boasts, are equalled or ex- 
ceeded by the increases in murders, suicides, divorces, 
and insanity. Each of these latter groups is increasing 
in the United States at a rate^/ar exceeding the increase 
in population. These are the real fruits by which the 
character of our wonderful era of progress may be 
correctly known. 

Fifth. But still more significant is the reference in 
the prophecy to the cry of the labourers, protesting 
against the system whereby their just reward is kept 
back or diverted from them. 

The present era of industrialism is characterized, not 
only by a class of " rich men," but also by a distinct 



THE "CRY" OF THE LABOURERS 247 

"labouring class"; and this class, like the other, is 
becoming more and more conspicuous. Organized 
Labour is one of the chief factors of .the present 
economic situation ; and it has a definite " cry " of its 
own. Who is there, in these days, that has not heard 
the outcry of the labouring class ? That feature of the 
era is emphasized in the prophecy : " Behold, the hire 
of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which 
is of you kept back by fraud, CRIETH." The harvest 
which these rich men have gathered into their store- 
houses has been the product of human toil ; and the 
cry of the reapers is that their hire has been kept back 
by fraud or artifice. 

It has already been pointed out that the special 
complaint of the Socialist labour-leaders, and of those 
whom they represent, is that the wage-system is really 
a fraudulent device, whereby the capitalist is enabled 
to appropriate to himself as " profits " the larger part 
of the value of the labourer's work, and whereby the 
latter's labour is purchased, not at its actual value as 
measured by what it produces, but at the market price 
of labour in a competitive labour-market, i.e. in a 
market where there are always unemployed workmen 
competing for work. The passage is very specific in 
speaking of the "hire" of the workmen, thereby 
pointing to a state of society wherein the labour is 
performed, not by slaves, but by hired labourers. 
This feature of the passage is very impressive, and has 



248 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

a special claim upon our attention as we see these 
identical conditions assuming prominence until they 
have become one of the most conspicuous character- 
istics of the society of the day. 

Sixth. "Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth." 
Rotherham renders this, " Ye have luxuriated upon the 
land " ; and Bagster"s literal version says : " Ye have 
lived in indulgence in the earth and in self-gratifica- 
tion." 

We hear and read tales of unprecedented extrava- 
gance on the part of the very rich ; of entertainments 
which cost enormous sums ; of dinners and even of 
single gowns which cost a fortune ; of displays of 
dress, jewellery, and table decorations ; of competition 
between members of the wealthy class in the matter 
of providing unique, costly, and sometimes amazingly 
grotesque features for their respective banquets and 
other entertainments. Styles of dress and headgear 
are also going to unprecedented extremes of law- 
lessness. Luxuriating upon the land, and living {i.e. 
spending their lives) in indulgence of all sorts and in 
self-gratification, are certainly among the distinctive 
characteristics of that class of ultra-rich which the 
era of industrialism has brought into existence; and 
"for whom judgment of old is not idle, and their 
destruction slumbers not " (2 Pet. ii. 3). 

God has noted all these things, and has specifically 
foretold " miseries " coming upon the rich and self- 



"A TERRIBLE ERA" 249 

indulgent far greater than those now endured by the 
defrauded labourers, at whose expense they luxuriate 
on the earth. Just what form this coming calamity 
will take, is not definitely stated in the prophecy. 
Neither do present conditions admit of a prediction 
of its precise form ; but the near approach of some 
catastrophe is being freely predicted by not a few of 
those who observe and comment upon the existing 
state of Society. Indeed, with economic conditions so 
badly out of balance and rapidly becoming more so 
it requires little foresight to predict a speedy and 
radical change. 

Professor Ely, of Johns Hopkins University, thus 
expresses himself upon the present situation : 

"I must frankly say that I believe we are just 
beginning to enter a terrible era in the world's 
history an era of domestic warfare such as never 
has been seen, and the end of which God only can 
see/' 

We may supplement Professor Ely's statement by 
saying that God has not only seen the end, but has 
revealed it. Therefore they who believe His Word will 
not be disturbed by these things which are coming 
to pass upon the earth. The passage upon which we 
have been commenting states clearly that, when the 
described condition of things appears, then the Lord's 
coming is so near that His people need take no 
measures for their own redress, or participate in any 



250 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

political schemes of social reform. What they are to 
do is specially enjoined in the words, *' Be patient, 
therefore, brethren, till the coming of the Lord." He 
Himself will bring deliverance to them that look for 
Him ; for " unto them that look for Him shall He 
appear the second time, apart from sin, unto salva- 
tion " (Heb. ix. 28). 

He Who alone can set all things right shall surely 
take the government upon His shoulder, and He will 
do it at the moment when man^s attempts at self- 
government have most conspicuously failed. 

The purpose, therefore, of this important prophecy, 
so clearly descriptive of these " last days, 11 is to arouse 
the Lord's people, and to exhort them to be in a con- 
stant state of watchfulness and readiness for His 
coming. 

" Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious 
fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it until 
it receive the early and the latter rain. Be ye also 
patient ; establish your heart : for the coming of the 
Lord draweth nigh." 

THE RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF SOCIALISM 

Thus far our attention has been directed mainly to 
the economic side of Socialism, contrasting it with 
the existing order of Capitalism, which it aims to 
supplant. But, as has been stated, Socialism does not 



RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES OF SOCIALISM 251 

propose merely a fairer distribution of the products of 
human effort. It also embodies definite religious 
principles. The basis of the whole movement is the 
profound belief in the " Solidarity and Independence 
of Humankind " ; that " each should work for all and 
all for each " ; that " the will of the People is the 
Supreme Law, and its Voice the Mandate of God," 
etc. 1 

These are articles of religious faith. They embody, 
moreover, the essence of ideal or pure Democracy ; and 
from them we may more clearly learn the drift of the 
various New Theology movements which give so pro- 
minent a place to the principles of Democracy, openly 
adopting them as religious principles. 

Again, attention has been called to the very 
important fact that the doctrines of Socialism are 
being espoused and propagated very largely by men 
who have been ordained as Christian ministers. This 
fact tends to emphasise the religious aspect of Socialism. 
Although these " Christian Socialists " do not advocate 
all of the religious doctrines of Socialism, their advocacy 
of the system itself necessarily aids in establishing it as 
a whole. 

It is the cardinal doctrine of Socialism that in- 
dividual human beings are but members of one 
homogeneous body, namely " Society," or the Race, to 

1 "The Creed of Collectivism/' as given in a booklet 
entitled We-ism, by W. E. P. French. 



252 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

which body they owe everything, and from which they 
receive everything. This practically means that 
Society, or the Race, or Man, is the true god from 
whom all benefits flow to each individual, and whom 
each individual is bound to serve. Hence it is the 
duty of Society to care for, protect, and supply the 
needs of all its dependent members and devotees. 
But, according to the teachers of Humanism and other 
new theologies, Man has so recently, and thus far so 
imperfectly, come to the knowledge of his own Divinity, 
that he has yet to perfect himself in the discharge of 
his Divine duties and responsibilities. The "Evolu- 
tion " of Man is therefore as yet incomplete ; but the 
progress of that process is so rapid that the complete 
Consolidation of Man, and his ability to carry on the 
business of a god, may be confidently expected at an 
early day. 

Mr. H. D. Lloyd, in Man the Social Creator, thus 
speaks of the progress that is being made in this 
direction : 

" Man is being slowly revealed to himself. The 
word the world waits for will come from those 
who disclose to Humanity that the perfections it 
has been attributing to its gods are sparks struck 
out of the goodnesses it feels stirring within itself. 
Mankind, struggling up out of the mud, has not 
dared to think of itself as the nebulae in which is 
contained shining star-stuff. But it is coming to 



THE CREED OF COLLECTIVISM 253 

feel that it does not need to be Divine by proxy 

any longer." 

The thought contained in this passage is floating 
everywhere in the atmosphere of Socialism, and is, in 
fact, of the very essence of that system. Moreover, we 
have seen that all the new theologies and progressive 
religious movements of the day are charged with it. 
Mr. Newman Smith speaks of it as " one of the pro- 
foundest and most vitalizing faiths which are now 
permeating and renewing the Protestant world," and 
as being also the inspiring faith of the Modernists. 
From this it may be clearly seen that society as a 
whole is not far from that predicted state wherein 
Divine honours and worship shall be paid to a man. 
That man need only be set up as the representative of 
the Race in order to be the realization of the religious 
programme of Socialism. In the foregoing passage from 
Mr. Lloyd's book we have Man as Creator, and in 
other characteristic utterances of the day he is extolled 
as his own Saviour. 

A few more quotations from Mr. French's book will 
be useful in showing how openly the religion of 
Humanism exalts Man to the place of God. 

" We believe in the Religion of Humanity, 

whose God is Love, and in which Love is the 

fulfilling of the Law." 

"We believe that Capital the dead inert 

material thing is the Creation of Labour, the 



254 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

living God, the co-ordination of Force and Matter, 
the marriage of the Head and the Hand. And we 
believe that the product, the thing created, is the 
inalienable property of the Producer and Creator." 

"We believe in a Community of Interest for 
the Community." 

" We believe in the UNIVERSAL TRUST in which 
every Child, Woman, and Man shall hold one, and 
only one, non-transferrable share of Common 
Stock, and in which there shall be no preferred 
stock." 

"We believe in the Gospel-of-the-Gift, and 
that whoso giveth Life in its highest Effort to the 
Service of Humanity, shall live for ever." 

" We believe in the Federation of the World, the 
Fellowship of Nations, the Motherhood of Nature, 
the Sisterhood and Brotherhood of Humankind, 
and in * The dear love of Comrades.' " 

"Socialism is the religion of Humanity. It 
was begotten in Hope, conceived in Charity, and 
born in Honour. It was prophesied in the Past, 
it is being fulfilled in the Present, and it shall be 
the glory of the splendid Future." 

" Socialism is the evolution of the human race 
from cannibalism and savagery to fraternalism and 
philanthropy ; from the infamy of the swine to 
the splendour of God." 

" Socialism is the Kingdom of Righteousness, 



255 

wherein little children, emancipated from toil, 
ignorance, hunger, and exploitation, shall be raised 
by loving care, 11 etc. ; " wherein women, absolved 
from shame, servitude, and inequality, shall be 
enfranchised, owners of themselves; . . . and 
wherein men, masterless and free, shall work gladly 
for family and home, 11 etc. 

" Socialism is the extreme of democracy meeting 
the extreme of individualism" 

" Socialism is the Trinity of Love, Justice, and 
Truth. 11 

" Socialism is the Gospel of the Atonement of 
Humanity for ' Man's inhumanity to man. 1 " 

" Socialism is the second coming of the ELDER 
BROTHER." 

" Socialism is Faith in the Motherhood of God, 
Hope in the Comradehood of Humanity, and 
Charity for all the world. 11 

These definitions should be pondered and their 
significance apprehended by all ; and especially do we 
commend them to the thoughtful consideration of 
" Christian Socialists. 11 For these doctrines and 
articles of faith are inherent in the system of Socialism. 
They spring naturally from its root principle the 
Solidarity or Brotherhood of Man ; and if humanity 
should ever commit itself to the desperate experiment 
of Socialism, it will speedily find itself subject to the 
operation of these principles and doctrines. 



256 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

SOCIALISM AND MARRIAGE 

There is one feature of the programme and creed 
of Socialism which calls for special notice. Socialism 
proposes to abolish the family and the institution 
of marriage. This is not said to excite prejudice. 
Neither in stating it do we lose sight of the fact 
that the proposition to abolish marriage and the 
family is abhorrent to many who openly espouse the 
cause of Socialism. Yet this proposition is inherent 
in the system. It is a logical tenet of the creed, 
because one of the fundamental principles of Socialism 
is that " Society " is responsible for the care and 
training of all children from their birth, and is bound 
to discharge to every child the obligations which 
now rest upon its parents. Thus the family, as an 
institution for the nurture, protection, and instruction 
of children, will be no longer needed, and, its utility 
having ceased, it will be abolished as an outgrown 
device. 

It also follows that, in the new order of things, 
marriage will have become a superfluous institution ; 
and not only so, but marriage is already under attack 
as an unnecessary restraint upon human liberty. 
Why should such a limitation be imposed ? And by 
what authority are " free human beings " to be thus 
restricted in a matter of personal choice of the very 
highest moment ? Certainly this marriage-yoke was not 



ABOLISHING THE " MARRIAGE- YOKE " 257 

imposed upon humanity by " the will of the people " ; 
and inasmuch as the will of the people is the " supreme 
law," Society has power and authority to abolish the 
bondage and to establish perfect liberty of the sexes. 

We have already quoted, as one of the definitions 
of Socialism, the declaration that it is a Kingdom in 
which " women, absolved Jrom shame, shall be owners 
of themselves? The following, from the same book, 
is even plainer : 

"We believe in the sacredness of the Family 

and the Home, the legitimacy of every child, 

and the inalienable right of every woman to- 

the absolute possession of Herself. 1 ' 

This feature of Socialism (and we repeat that it 

is a logical and necessary feature of a true socialistic 

order, in which the State is the father of every child, 

and all children are treated alike) is what most 

plainly marks the system as one embodying the 

doctrines of demons and seducing spirits. The Spirit 

of God, speaking " expressly," says that " in the latter 

times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed 

to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons . . . 

forbidding to marry." This has been supposed by 

some to refer to the celibacy of the clergy ; but 

" forbidding to marry " is not a " doctrine " taught the 

people by the Church of Rome. Moreover, celibacy 

of the clergy has been carried on from very early 

times. It is not specially characteristic of "latter 



258 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

times." It follows that "forbidding to marry 11 must 
refer to something else. 

We need be no longer at a loss to understand its 
meaning, for the productive energies of these active 
days have at last brought forth a religious system 
which includes among its doctrines "forbidding to 
marry 11 ; that is, it teaches the actual abolition of 
marriage, and some are departing from "the faith," 
giving heed to this new religious system. 

The matter now under consideration is of the 
utmost importance. Marriage was the first institution 
which God ordained for human society (Gen. ii. 24). 
It is the one and only survival of man^ state of 
original innocence. It is, hence, the last Divine 
institution to be set aside by man in the exercise 
of his unrestrained will. The determined assault on 
the institution of marriage, which is now being carried 
on, is a striking indication that man is nearing the 
very end of his rebellious doings. 

The Lord Jesus put the seal of His authority upon 
the inviolability of the marriage institution. He 
declared that divorce had been permitted by Moses 
to the Israelites because of the hardness of their 
hearts ; but that " from the beginning it was not 
so" (Matt. xix. 8). And He reminded His hearers 
that " He which made them at the beginning made 
them male and female, and said, "For this cause 
shall a man leave father and mother and shall cleave 



"FORBIDDING TO MARRY 11 259 

to his wife ; and they twain shall be one flesh " 
(Matt. xix. 4, 5). 

This proposal to abolish marriage may not be 
lightly dismissed, as some are disposed to do, with 
the fond notion that the moral sense of the people 
will resist it. The moral sense of the people will not 
stand in the way of the will of the people. The moral 
sense of a community is the product of that standard 
of morals which is recognized therein as authoritative. 
The moral sense of communities where the Bible has 
been revered, is the product of the Bible. But what 
is now going on, and what for a large majority of 
people in civilized countries has already taken place, 
and what all the important movements of the day 
are hastening to accomplish, is the transfer of the 
recognized seat of authority from the Bible to " the 
People." With the authority of the Bible set aside, 
and the absolute freedom of man proclaimed as the 
establishment of the golden age on earth, there will 
exist no reason whatever why men and women should 
put themselves under the marriage yoke. 

Society as a whole is being rapidly educated to 
accept the teaching of Socialism in "forbidding to 
marry. 1 ' Among the factors contributing to this result 
may be briefly mentioned 

1. The increasing facilities for divorce, and the 
largely increasing numbers of those who avail them- 
selves of such facilities. The divorce statistics have 



forced themselves upon public attention, and have been 
made the subject of many warnings by those who 
appreciate in some measure the dangers and evils into 
which this tendency is leading. But while men and 
women who, at the moment, happen not to be meditat- 
ing or desiring legal separation from their mates, may 
admit the seriousness of the situation, the warnings 
certainly are not heeded by those who desire freedom 
from the marriage yoke. As is usually the case with 
public warnings, they impress only those who have no 
need of them. 

2. The current "affinity" doctrines and practices 
are doing their part to banish from the minds of the 
people the idea of the sacredness of marriage. The 
"problem 11 plays and novels of the day are making 
their contribution to the same result. 1 

1 Since this volume went to the printer the first of a 
series of articles, under the striking title, " Blasting at the 
Rock of Ages," has made its appearance in a leading 
American magazine (The Cosmopolitan). In these articles, 
the writer, Mr. Harold Bolce, promises to give the results 
of investigations, extending over several years, conducted 
by him with the object of ascertaining just what is being 
taught in the principal Universities in the United States. 
Those articles will doubtless inform the reader, with 
approximate accuracy, as to the extent to which the 
doctrines of Pantheism (particularly in the form of Human- 
ism) have become the accepted religion of the cultured 
and educated classes. We have space only to quote 
briefly from the editor's note. He says : 



DISRAELI'S PREDICTION 261 

3. General laxity and disregard of the marriage 
relation is apparently increasing both among those 

" Those who are not in close touch with the great 
colleges of the country will be astonished to learn the 
creeds being fostered by the faculties of our great univer- 
sities. In hundreds of classrooms it is being daily taught 
that the Decalogue is no more sacred than a syllabus ; 
THAT THE HOME AS AN INSTITUTION is nooMEn ; that im- 
morality is simply an act in contravention of society's 
accepted standards ; . . . that the change from one reli- 
gion to another is like getting a new hat ; . . . that wide 
stairways are open between social levels, but that, to the 
climber, children are encumbrances ; that the sole effect of 
prolificacy is to fill tiny graves ; and that there can be and 
are HOLIER ALLIANCES WITHOUT THE MARRIAGE BOND THAN 
WITHIN. These are some of the revolutionary and sensa- 
tional teachings submitted with academic warrant to the 
minds of hundreds of thousands of students in the United 
States. . . . ' The social question of to-day/ said Disraeli, 
' is only a zephyr which rustles the leaves, but will soon 
become a hurricane.' It is a dull ear that cannot hear the 
mutterings of the coming storm." 

According, then, to this witness, the demoniacal doctrine 
subversive of marriage is being openly taught at some of 
the leading American colleges. 

It must be borne constantly in mind that, according to 
the principles of democracy, which are firmly established 
throughout Christendom, the foregoing, and any other 
evil doctrines, become right the moment they are sanctioned 
by "the people." And who can question but that such 
" liberal " doctrines and practices are much more accept- 
able to the taste of the public than the old straitlaced 
notions, which were " arbitrarily imposed " upon the 
enslaved human intellect in the days when men were 
dominated by the now " crumbling creeds " ? 



262 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

who are within and those without the marriage state. 
In some countries (as Italy, for example), where 
facilities for divorce are not so abundant as in the 
progressive United States, the opinion is quite com- 
monly and openly held among the lower classes of 
society, that it is best to dispense with the marriage 
ceremony at the beginning of their domestic relations, 
and thus ensure against possible inconvenience in case 
those relations prove unsatisfactory. 

4. There is an esoteric teaching of "Christian 
Science" which has an important bearing upon this 
subject, and which, therefore, we cannot dismiss 
without at least a brief reference. This extraordinary 
and unspeakably vile teaching is to the effect that 
when women become proficient in " Christian Science " 
they will be able to bring children into the world 
without natural conception. This is a peculiarly subtle 
and dangerous attack upon the sacredness of marriage, 
for it is conducted behind the mask of a pretended 
lofty spirituality. It is therefore most needful that 
the people be plainly warned against it. This has 
been very thoroughly done in a book recently published 
by Dr. I. M. Haldeman, of New York City, under the 
title, Christian Science in the Light of Holy Scripture. 
Concerning the seriousness of the doctrine upon which 
we are now commenting, Dr. Haldeman well says : 

"Abolish marriage, break down the sacredness 
of motherhood, the nobility of fatherhood, and 
the unashamed right of childhood, and every 



" DOCTRINES OF DEMONS " 263 

institution of order and decency would go down 

with a crash." 

We are surely warranted in regarding this doctrine 
as of special significance, in view of the rapid spread of 
" Christian Science," and in view of the fact that the 
Spirit of God has expressly declared that a feature of 
" the latter times " should be a departure from the 
faith, and a giving heed to seducing spirits and 
doctrines of demons, speaking lies in hypocrisy, having 
their conscience seared with a hot iron, forbidding to 
marry. With this Scripture to guide us, we need be 
at no loss to determine the source of that evil system 
known as " Christian Science." 

5. The looseness and immodesty which characterize 
Spiritist movements are likewise operating against 
the sacredness of marriage. This matter has forced 
itself upon the attention of Christian people of late. 
Many of the meetings where unusual experiences 
are sought and unusual manifestations given, have 
been characterized by a flagrant disregard of the 
restraints ordinarily observed between the sexes. In 
fact, it may be stated, as a general rule, that the 
yielding of one's mind and body to Spiritist " control " 
in any of its many current forms, causes deterioration, 
physically, mentally, and morally. 

This latter phase of current events is supposed by 
some students and expositors of Scripture, and not with- 
out reason, to be paving the way for the reproduction 
of the awful conditions prevailing on earth before the 



264 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

flood, and described in Gen. vi. 2-5. When demonism 
reaches this stage, the judgments of God cannot be 
longer restrained. 

But whatever, in all the changes that are taking 
place, may be yet involved in uncertainty, and what- 
ever room there may be for differences as to the 
tendencies and outcome of some phases of the great 
socialistic movements of the day, there can be no 
doubt at all that their main object is to declare 
the absolute freedom of mankind from all external 
authority, and to establish a system wherein Society 
shall administer all the affairs of a consolidated 
Humanity. 

ZIONISM 

Our review of the great movements of the day would 
be incomplete without a reference to Zionism, which 
came into existence in 1897 (the first Zionist Congress 
being held in Basle, Switzerland, in that year) and which 
has developed astonishing vigor during the short inter- 
vening period. 

Prophecy assigns to the Hebrew nation a prominent 
part in the convulsions which are to mark the close of 
this age and the beginning of that which is to succeed 
it ; and the fulfilment of these prophecies requires that 
the Jews should have at that time a recognized national 
existence, such as will admit of their entering into treaty 
relations with the great powers of the world. 

The history of mankind presents no fact more 



A JEWISH AWAKENING 265 

remarkable, and none which is less susceptible of 
explanation to the natural mind, than the fact that 
the Jews have been, always and everywhere, prevented 
from merging with the peoples where they have dwelt 
throughout this long age. And now we behold the 
astounding spectacle of an awakening of the Jewish 
national consciousness after a sleep of nearly two 
thousand years 1 duration. After that long period 
of denationalization there is seen the beginning and 
growth of a world-wide Jewish national movement. 

The inspiring sentiment of this movement is the 
thought of repossessing the land promised by God to 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

What appeared to be, a few years ago, insuperable 
difficulties in the way of this movement, have been one 
by one removed. The overruling hand of the Almighty 
has been so shaping the affairs of the nations, that now, 
with the late political revolution in Turkey, the last 
formidable obstacle seems to have been taken out of 
the way. 

If we bear in mind the part which the financial 
powers are to play in these closing scenes of our age, 
and also the fact that these financial powers are very 
largely in Jewish hands, we shall the better appreciate 
the great significance of the Zionist movement. Up 
to this time these tremendous financial interests have 
been held by individual Jews, citizens of various 
countries, and united by no political bond. What a 
mighty factor in human affairs will be brought into 
18 



266 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALrSM 

operation when these several financial interests are 
consolidated ! What the " great powers " need in 
order to prosecute their rapidly growing military and 
naval programmes is MONEY. Commercial rivalry is 
intensifying. National existences are being imperilled 
by the possibility of losing important channels of 
trade. Hence armaments are growing in proportion 
to these national fears. Germany unexpectedly 
accelerates her naval programme by the seemingly 
trifling period of four months, and England is thereby 
thrown into a perfect fever of anxiety. So we see on 
all hands increasing " distress of nations with perplexity.' 1 '' 
Meanwhile the nations will be compelled to negotiate 
loans, because the limits of revenue by taxation have 
been practically reached. 

This situation is what gives the Jewish financiers their 
great opportunity. And now that a Jewish national 
consciousness has been awakened, what is more natural 
and probable than that, as a condition of additional 
loans to the great powers, the Jewish financiers should 
demand treaties guaranteeing national existence to 
the Jews ? 

Assuming that events take this likely course, and 
that Judea becomes the home of the great creditor- 
nation of the world, the next development would be 
easy to forecast. But it has been already long ago 
foretold. In Daniel ix. 27, we read of a treaty between 
the Jews and a great world-power guaranteeing to the 
former certain privileges for a period of seven years, 



A CREDITOR-NATION 267 

which treaty the guarantor breaks in the middle of 
that period, thus precipitating the great tribulation, 
or " time of Jacob's trouble." Then, in Zechariah xiv. 
2-4, we read that all nations shall be gathered against 
Jerusalem to battle ; and that the Lord shall then go 
forth and fight against those nations ; and that His 
feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives. 
What should bring all these nations at once against 
Jerusalem except the onerous obligations imposed by 
the astute money-lenders as conditions for their financial 
aid ? The invading powers must have a common cause, 
for they are acting together ; and we have in full view 
a situation which would furnish such a common casus 
belli. The debtor is very obsequious when coming to 
borrow, but often fierce and belligerent when the terms 
of payment have to be met. This is particularly true 
when the borrower feels those terms to be hard, 
and we know that the Jew has learned how to take 
full advantage of the necessities of those who come to 
him for financial aid. 

Furthermore, the fires of hatred against the Jew 
have not died out. On the contrary, they have, within 
recent years, flared up and burned more fiercely than 
at any time during the long era of Jewish dispersion 
and persecution. Heretofore this strange hatred 
(known to-day as "Anti-Semitism") has necessarily 
expended itself against individual Jews. But given a 
Jewish nation, and one that has gained the galling power 
of a creditor over other nations, and it is certain that this 



268 DEVELOPMENTS OF COMMERCIALISM 

age-long and world-wide hatred would take a national 
form, and would break out, on slight provocation, with 
all the intensity predicted in the ancient prophecies. 

It is evident, moreover, that should the Jews 
aggregate their capital and become a great creditor- 
nation, with fiscal agencies in all commercial centres 
of the world, they would be the suppliers of capital, 
not only to Governments, but also to industrial enter- 
prises. The pre-eminent commercial aptitude of the 
Jew, and his quick apprehension of economic problems, 
are recognized on all hands. It is reasonable, therefore, 
to suppose that Jewish financiers have long ago realized 
the great advantage they would obtain by consolidating 
their capital forming, as it were, a Money Trust ; and 
it may also be safely assumed that plans have been 
already considered for bringing about so desirable an 
arrangement. The establishment of a Jewish State, 
with its capital at Jerusalem, would make this very 
easy of accomplishment ; and thus the city of David 
might quickly become the most important city on earth, 
as well as the object of universal jealousy and hatred. 

It is evident that, should the money-power ever be 
consolidated (and if present commercial tendencies work 
out their ultimate result, it is inevitable), that power 
will really dominate the politics and industries of the 
world. It is further evident that the head of the 
Money Trust would be the most potent individual in 
the world. He would be virtually the head of the 
consolidated human interests. Add to these considera- 



A "MONEY-TRUST" 269 

tions the fact to which prophecy testifies, namely, that 
the Antichrist the head of the ultimate religio- 
commercial system will be a Jew, with headquarters 
at Jerusalem, and we may plainly see that this great 
Zionist movement is, like all the other notable move- 
ments of our day, heading directly towards the 
consolidation of human affairs into a world-wide, 
all-embracing System. 

And it should be noted in this connection that 
Zionism, while intensely national in character, does not 
propose to revive the ancient religion of the Jewish 
people. This is, to my mind, the strangest feature of 
Zionism. Every national revival among the Jews in 
their past history has been a religious revival. That 
there should ever be a national revival of Judaism 
which should be absolutely destitute of the religious 
element, and which should make absolutely no appeal 
to the religious feelings of the people, would be deemed 
an a priori impossibility. And yet it is necessary, 
in order for prophecy to be fulfilled, that a large 
number of Jews should return to, and should occupy, 
Palestine in a condition of' religious apostasy. This event 
seems to be now close at hand ; and, in spite of all 
opposition, hatred, spoliation, and persecution, the 
hated and despised Jews have possessed themselves of 
such financial resources, and of such commercial 
influence, in every part of the world, as to prepare all 
that is needed for the rapid fulfilment of the other 
steps of the prophetic programme. 



SECTION IV 

LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

THE Scriptures examined at the beginning of this 
volume state very plainly that the great System of the 
end-times is to be a gigantic and practically universal 
system of Idolatry. The Desolator is to come " upon 
the wing of abominations," that is to say, of idolatries. 
It is therefore a very important part of our task to 
inquire into the idolatries of our day, and particularly 
to ascertain whether the tendency to create and pay 
homage to idols is, or is not, one of the characteristics 
of the "modern man." For this reason, we ask the 
reader's patient consideration of what follows. 

The Scriptures contain many warnings against 
idolatry : but by many readers of Scripture these are 
supposed to have no application in our day except 
to the heathen. That, however, is a very mistaken 
view of the matter. It involves a mistake as to 
what constitutes idolatry, and a mistake as to the re- 
ligious sentiments of modern society. The fact is, 

270 



AN IDOLATROUS GENERATION 271 

that these are days of gross superstition and flagrant 
idolatry. 

Here are some of the admonitions of the New Testa- 
ment with reference to idolatry : 

"Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee idolatry 1 ' 
(1 Cor. x. 14). 

" Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away 
unto these dumb idols " (1 Cor. xii. 2). 

" The works of the flesh are manifest, which are 
these . . . idolatry " (Gal. v. 19, 20). 

"Nor covetous man, who is an idolater" 
(Eph. v. 5). 

" Mortify, therefore, your members which are 
upon the earth . . . covetousness, which is 
idolatry " (Col. iii. 5). 

"Little children, keep yourselves from idols 1 ' 
(1 John v. 21). 

Let it be particularly noted that these admonitions 
are addressed, not to the heathen, but to the Lord's 
people ; and they are much needed. 

Of God's redeemed people of old, it is written, for 
our admonition, that they " mingled among the heathen 
and learned their works. And they served their idols ; 
which were a snare unto them " (Ps. cvi. 35, 36). This 
danger is just as great and imminent to-day as it 
ever was. 

It is not generally supposed that people in the 
centres of twentieth century civilization are living in 



272 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

the midst of gross idolatry ; yet such is the fact. 
Idolatry flourishes vigorously, not in heathen lands 
only, but in civilized lands. The difference is one 
of form. In one locality we have idolatry adapted to 
the degraded and ignorant. In the other, it takes on 
forms suitable to the cultivated and refined. 

In the scale of civilization the difference between 
those human beings who are at the bottom and those 
at the top is a difference of degree only. In nature 
there is "no difference" (Rom. iii. 22). Culture 
changes man outwardly, but not inwardly. It 
changes his behaviour, but not his nature. It is God 
only Who can work within a man to do " that which 
is well pleasing in His sight " (Heb. xiii. 21, Phil. ii. 
13). Man looks only on "the outward appearance, 11 
and is satisfied if the surface be seemingly clean 
and respectable. But God sees the inside as well 
as the outside; and, judging from His created 
works, He is far more particular as to the state of 
that which is within than of that which lies on the 
surface. 

Man, as he becomes more educated, may change his 
idols, but he does not turnjrom idolatry until he turns 
to God. " Ye turned TO GOD from idols to serve the 
living and true God and to wait for His Son from 
heaven " (1 Thess. i. 9, 10). 

Worship or service directed to another than the 
living and true God, or trust reposed in another (person 



DANGERS OF THE WILDERNESS 273 

or thing) than in Him, is idolatry. God's people of 
old, who were delivered by Him out of Egypt, were 
constantly falling into idolatry. And God's people of 
to-day, who have been delivered out of the moral 
Egypt under the blood of Christ, the true Paschal 
Lamb, and who have crossed in Him the Red Sea of 
His death and resurrection, are not safe from the 
snare of idolatry. The repeated warnings of Scripture 
clearly show this. The danger to the Israelites was 
from the idolatrous practices of the surrounding 
nations. So God's people to-day need to be specially 
warned regarding the idolatries of "this present evil 
world" in which they are sojourning. 

The particular example of idolatry, to which our 
attention is expressly directed by the New Testament, 
is one whose lessons have not become by any means 
obsolete. In 1 Cor. x. 7 we read : " Neither be ye 
idolaters, as were some of them ; as it is written, The 
people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play." 
How many lives, even of those who profess to be, as to 
their earthly experience, in the wilderness with Christ, 
would be aptly summarized by this brief description ? 
The episode to which the Apostle referred in this 
passage occurred while the redeemed people of Jehovah 
were journeying with Him through the wilderness ; 
and these wilderness experiences have a special applica- 
tion to Christians, for whom this world has been made, 
by the cross of Christ, a wilderness, through which 



274 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

they are passing with Him to the glory which they are 
to share when He shall appear. In the same chapter 
we are explicitly told that the people of Israel in the 
wilderness " did all drink the same spiritual drink, for 
they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them : 
And that Rock was Christ"" (ver. 4); and it was 
subsequent to this that they fell into idolatry. We 
also read in that chapter that "all these things 
happened unto them for types : and they are written 
for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world 
(or ages) are come" (ver. 11, marg.). 

What, then, is an idol ? 

It is safe to say that every man has a god ; and that 
most men have more than one. A man's god is that to 
which he looks for help, support, deliverance from 
trouble ; that in which he trusts for the transformation 
or improvement of the world, and the elimination of 
its evils ; that which he voluntarily serves, praises, and 
glorifies. 

All men recognize that humanity as a whole is in 
great distress at the present time ; that it is compassed 
by invisible dangers, exposed to diseases which strike 
their unsuspecting victims out of the air, food, and 
water ; that it is struggling onward upon the path in 
which it finds itself, and is progressing with difficulty 
because weighed down by a great load of misery. 
Whatever difference of opinion there may be as to how 



THE NEED OF A GOD 275 

mankind got into this path, and as to where it will 
eventually lead, there can be no question as to its 
sorrows and dangers, and as to the nature of the ex- 
periences which it furnishes to those who tread it. It is 
clear to all that the world, however bright in spots, 
abounds with many and great evils and perils. 

It is probable, too, that all men cherish a hope of 
coming deliverance ; though possibly there may be 
some who utterly despair of better things for humanity. 
Ignoring such possible exceptions, we may say that all 
men put their trust in some thing or things, external 
to themselves, to bring about more favourable condi- 
tions for humanity. Those who do not trust for this 
in the God of the Bible, and in His revealed purposes 
in Christ, must necessarily put their trust in idols. 
God is "living and true." Idols are non-living and 
false. Hence, when it is written of the Thessalonian 
converts, that they " turned to God from idols," it was 

" TO SERVE THE LIVING AND TRUE GoD." 

In whatever part of the earth man may be found, 
his state is always such as to make him deeply conscious 
of the need of a god ; and since, in the unbelieving 
heart, the need usually creates that which answers to 
it, man everywhere makes for himself gods. Advance 
in civilization does not remove or even diminish the 
consciousness of the need of a god. If anything, it 
increases that need by enlarging man's horizon of the 
attainable. Hence progress in culture does not check 



276 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

the creation of idols. It only modifies their character- 
istics. There is, therefore, but one escape from the 
condition of idolatry, and that is to turn to God, 
the God of Revelation. 

An idol, then, has no real existence. " We know 
that an idol is nothing in the world " (1 Cor. viii. 4). 
It is an imaginary thing, an idea or ideal, as the word 
in the original (eidolon) signifies. The idol of the 
heathen is not the device of wood or stone which his 
fingers have fashioned. That figure is only a repre- 
sentation of the idol which his mind has conceived. 
The idol is the product, not of man's fingers, but of his 
mind. The image which man sets up as his god, is the 
product of his imagination. It is in the making of 
images unrealities vested with the garb and qualities of 
reality that the imagination really exercises itself, and 
from which that faculty derives its appropriate name. 

The faculty of imagination, in its incessant activity, 
turns out many products which the consciousness of 
man recognizes as unreal, and which serve only for his 
entertainment. But the very highest exercise of the 
imagination is in first creating imaginary beings, 
which become real beings to their creator, and to which 
are attributed powers far transcending those of the 
individual man ; and in then disposing these imaginary 
beings propitiously towards mankind, so that they exert 
their powers on its behalf. When man comes to believe 
and trust in such beings or images, they are his idols. 



IDOLS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIONS 277 

The idols in which man trusts may or may not be 
represented before his physical eyes by a device or 
figure of wood or stone, or by a pictorial representation. 
The higher and more fully developed are the man's 
mental powers, the less need he has of such a repre- 
sentation of his idol. The poor savage, and the man 
of low intelligence, require a materialization of their idol 
or image to help them to fix their thoughts upon it, and 
in order that their fellow-worshippers may have some- 
thing tangible around which to gather. But the doctor 
of philosophy can pay his reverential service to a mere 
abstraction, and needs only a name (preferably a long 
one) whereby his idea may be identified, for the purpose 
of worshipful communion with others who trust in the 
same idol. Yet even such highly civilized idolaters 
are in the habit of calling upon the resources of art to 
furnish visible representations of the idols which their 
own imaginations have called into existence, and to 
whose supposed superhuman powers they are trusting, 
and teaching others to trust, for the blessing of man- 
kind. Illustrations of this form of idolatry, which 
are familiar to all intelligent persons, will be given 
later on. 

The act of setting up an idol, whatever its form or 
name, involves the tacit assumption that man, though 
unable himself to remove the evils within and around 
him, is nevertheless capable of producing something, 
or starting some movement, or setting some agencies 



278 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

into operation, which can do for him the things that he 
cannot do directly for himself. Such thing, movement, 
or agency, which is to accomplish results beyond the 
power of the man who creates or starts it into opera- 
tion, is truly an idol. It has no real existence, being a 
mere abstraction, and of course has no power of its own. 
Thus it will be seen, upon close scrutiny, that the 
various agencies in which the modern man is trust- 
ing for the improvement and ultimate salvation of 
humanity, and to which he gives various imposing 
names of his own choice, are human in their origin. 
The power attributed to them, and the results 
expected from them, all involve the tacit assumption 
that man, if unable to save himself directly, is never- 
theless able to create a god and saviour, or as many 
gods and saviours as may be needed, to accomplish the 
great work of raising mankind into the ideal condition 
of peace, righteousness, and universal contentment. 

Man, whose strength and energies, both physical and 
mental, depend absolutely upon material food and 
drink, which must be supplied to him (for he cannot 
create them), thus indulges the folly of supposing that, 
with the strength derived from these material things, he 
can create agencies, or start and carry on movements, 
capable of lifting him up and out of the evil moral atmo- 
sphere in which he has always existed since the Fall. 

Thus, if the chain of cause and effect as it exists in 
human thought be traced to its end, it will be found 



MAN'S SCHEME OF SALVATION 279 

that the desired result for which humanity strives 
(which we may call " salvation ") is to be accom- 
plished by means of agencies which are the product of 
merely human energies, which in turn are the product 
of material substances (food and drink) supplied 
gratuitously to man out of the storehouse of nature. 
Man's scheme of salvation is thus seen to have its 
basis in food and drink. Yet this scheme of salvation 
commends itself to the "modern man,"" because it is 
more " rational " to believe in it than to believe in the 
revelation of the God who created man, and who 
" caused the grass to grow for the cattle and herb for 
the service of man ; that He may bring forth food out 
of the earth " (Ps. civ. 14), without which food, man 
and all his imaginations would quickly perish. Such 
is " rationalism," and such is the nature of the human 
reason which, to the modern man, is the final authority 
and arbiter of truth. 

THE METHOD OF IDOL-MAKING 

The method which man pursues in fashioning his 
idols next claims attention. That method is Divinely 
described in Isaiah xliv., and a brief consideration of 
this important chapter will show that, while man has, 
during the intervening centuries, changed the forms of 
his idols, he has not changed his method of making 
them. 



280 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

In the first part of the chapter, Jehovah declares 
Himself to be the only God and Saviour, and pledges 
Himself to bring full redemption and deliverance to 
His people. " Thus saith Jehovah, the King of Israel, 
and his Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts : I am the first 
and I am the last ; and beside Me there is no God "" 
(ver. 6). 1 

But in the very presence of this revelation which 
God gives of Himself as Redeemer and Deliverer, and 
in the face of His revealed purposes in grace towards 
helpless and needy men, the latter give themselves 
over to fashioning idols. But "they that fashion a 
graven image are all of them vanity, and the things 
that they delight in shall not profit " (ver. 9). 
And this is how the idol-maker proceeds : 

" The smith maketh an axe and worketh in the 
coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, and 
worketh it with his strong arm ; yea, he is hungry 
and his strength faileth ; he drinketh no water, 
and is faint " (ver. 12). 

The idol-maker himself fabricates the very tools out 
of which he makes his idol, and the latter, which is to 
do things far beyond the power of its own maker, is 
formed by the strength of man's arm. And that 
strength is not the puny creature's own. Its con- 
tinuance, so long as it lasts, depends upon food, and 
for that he is dependent upon God. If he hungers, his 
1 The translation is that of the Amer. R.V. 



"THE FIGURE OF A MAN 1 ' 

strength fails. If he drinks no water, he becomes faint. 
Without these supplies he cannot go on with his idol- 
making. 

" The carpenter stretcheth out a line ; he 
marketh it with a pencil ; he shapeth it with 
planes, he marketh it out with the compasses, and 
shapeth it after the figure of a MAN, according to 
the beauty of Man " (ver. 13). 

Back of the gods which men make, is always the 
figure of Man himself; for the one who makes the 
gods is necessarily greater than the gods he makes; 
and the maker of the idols naturally serves also as the 
model upon which they are fashioned. 

" He maketh a god and worshippeth it ; he 
maketh it a graven image and falleth down 
thereto. He burneth part thereof in the fire ; 
and with part thereof he eateth flesh ; he roasteth 
roast and is satisfied ; yea, he warmeth himself, 
and saith, I am warm, I have seen the fire; and 
the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his 
graven image ; he falleth down unto it, and 
worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, and saith, 
Deliver me, for thou art my god " (vers. 15-17). 
This passage speaks of two kinds of gratification 
for which the heart of man seeks, namely (1), warmth, 
that is physical comforts, and (2) food, that is the 
things which satisfy the natural appetites. The idol- 
maker is represented as making his idol of the same 
19 



LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

materials, and by the same processes, employed in 
supplying these physical gratifications. We may 
safely assert that this description of what constitutes the 
essence of idol-making was never more applicable than 
at the present day. The boast of the age is the great 
progress which man has made, and is making, along 
material lines. By his natural powers man has wonder- 
fully multiplied methods and appliances for minister- 
ing to his physical comforts and conveniences, and for 
satisfying his natural appetites. The factors of this 
progress are the natural powers of man, exercised in 
the making of inventions and in the construction of 
mechanical appliances of all sorts; and the chief 
results of this progress are (1) things which minister to 
the comforts of man, and (2) things which respond to 
the desires and appetites of the natural heart, "he 
burneth part thereof in the fire," thus making himself 
comfortable ; " and with part thereof he eateth flesh," 
thus satisfying his desires. 

Furthermore, man gains these ends (that is to say, 
warmth or comfort, and food or gratification of the 
natural desires) by exerting his own natural powers 
upon material substances, as wood and metal. By the 
very same powers, exerted upon the same substances, he 
fashions a god, to which he says, "Deliver me, for 
thou art my god." For to what is the modern man 
looking for deliverance but to the very progress which 
he is himself achieving by the manipulation of the 



RATIONALISM OR IRRAT1ONALISM 283 

substances he finds in and upon the earth? It is a 
true picture. 

" And none calleth to mind, neither is there 
knowledge or understanding to say, I have burned 
part of it in the fire ; yea, also I have baked bread 
upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and 
eaten it ; and shall I make the residue thereof an 
abomination ? Shall I fall down to the stock of a 
tree?" (ver. 19). 

Is this rationalism or irrationalism ? Shall man 
trust for his moral uplift to that which roasts his food 
and warms his body ? Shall expedients of man's own 
devising be trusted to abolish the evils within and 
around him ? Such is certainly the teaching which is 
acceptable to the modern man, and which, because it is 
acceptable to him, the teachers whom he supports are 
zealous to supply. 

We should notice also the prominence given in the 
foregoing passage of Scripture to man himself as the 
agent who does all this. "He maketh a god," "he 
maketh it," "he burneth it," "he eateth," "he 
roasteth," "he warmeth," "he falleth down." It is 
all man's doings , and the grand result is that man 
eats and is satisfied ; he warms himself and says, " I am 
warm, I have seen the fire." This is, indeed, the 
grand result of all of man's progress and civilization. Or 
rather it is the result at which they aim, ; for it must 
not be forgotten there be as yet but few who enjoy the 



284 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

coveted privilege of warming themselves at the fires 
which civilization and progress have kindled, and who 
have secured possession of the coveted places at the 
banqueting tables which these beneficent agencies 
have provided. The great majority of human beings 
are still shivering and hungry, notwithstanding all 
that civilization and progress have done. They are 
wondering when these miracle-working agencies are 
going to do something for them. They have for a 
long time been urged to do homage to modern pro- 
gress and civilization, and to join in the anthems of 
praise which the modern man is for ever raising to 
himself and his doings. But these dissatisfied ones are 
now, as we have seen, beginning to clamour and crowd 
for seats at the table, and for places near enough to 
the fire to feel something of its warmth ; and this 
crowding threatens serious disturbance to the arrange- 
ments which the leaders of the age have made for their 
own comfort and glory. 

But our chapter very plainly declares that it is vain 
to look to human agencies for help and deliverance. 
God will accept no aid whatever from the modern 
man, or from his inventions, his sciences, and the other 
things wherein he trusts, and whereof he boasts. If it 
were otherwise, man would indeed have some ground 
for boasting of his own achievements, and flesh would 
have whereof to glory in God's presence, saying, " See 
what science, invention, and human progress have 



" JEHOVAH HATH DONE IT r 285 

accomplished ! " Deliverance and a glorious salvation 
shall surely come ; but man's ways, his ingenuity and 
schemes of betterment, will have no part whatever in 
bringing it about. For God says, and this is the 
climax of the lesson here taught 

" Sing, O ye heavens, for JEHOVAH HATH DONE 
IT." " I am He that stretcheth forth the heavens 
ALONE, that spreadeth abroad the earth BY MYSELF ; 
that frustrateth the signs of THE BOASTERS ; that 
turneth wise men backward, and maketh their 
knowledge foolish" (vers. 23-25, marg.). 
Yes, the scientific civilization, which has been 
spreading itself over the whole earth during the past 
century ; which has developed into a vast system so 
complicated that nobody understands it, uniting 
peoples of different nations in economic relations of the 
most intricate sort ; and which has at last aroused the 
long-slumbering millions of the East and taught them 
modern warfare, the white man's vices, and other 
civilized arts, will surely crumble at the appointed 
time into utter nothingness ; and there are not want- 
ing even now those who, without any help from the 
sure word of prophecy, very clearly foresee and plainly 
foretell the fast-coming catastrophe. 

We would therefore most earnestly exhort God's 
people to be wholly detached in heart from the 
world-system, and from sharing, in the smallest 
degree, in admiration of the doings of this scien- 



86 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

tific age. " Little children, keep yourself from 
idols." 



THE "GODS MANY 1 ' OF THE MODERN 

MAN 

What, then, are the gods to which the men of the 
day are looking to bring benefits and blessings to 
humanity, to elevate mankind, and generally to do for 
them what they are unable to do directly for them- 
selves? It is desirable that we should have the 
clearest information as to this ; and we have not far to 
look in order to discover that there are " gods many." 
We hear on all sides, and our attention is called in all the 
multiform literature of the modern man, to the great 
things that are being done for humanity by Science, 
Evolution, Invention, Education, Federation, Progress, 
Liberty, Fraternity, Democracy, Reason, Commerce, 
Manufacture, Civilization, Art, Prosperity, Wealth, 
etc. 

When the modern man looks back with pride 
upon the career and advancement of humanity, he 
gives to God no glory for any gain he recognizes, 
but says of these creatures of his own imagination, 
" These be thy gods, O Israel, that brought thee up 
out of the land of Egypt" (Ex. xxxii. 4). And to 
these he looks to bring him into the land of Canaan, 
where humanity shall enjoy peace and plenty for ever. 



"GODS MANY' 1 287 

Men are so blind and foolish as not to see that these 
imposing names, the sound of which they so delight to 
hear, stand for mere abstractions, creatures of the 
imagination, having no real powers, and indeed no 
real existence ; that they are but ideas, ideals, IDOLS. 
These are, in the strictest sense, idols, in so far as they 
are credited with results that have been accomplished 
for man's benefit, or are looked to for further help and 
deliverance. It requires but little attention to the 
real significance of these names to perceive that they 
represent idols created in the manner described in 
Isaiah xliv. ; that is to say, they represent the applica- 
tion of man's natural powers to the substances and forces 
of nature, for the production of things which minister 
to man's material welfare. And the energies whereby 
these lines of human activity are prosecuted, are 
derived wholly from food and drink. They are 
purely physical energies, yet with them man assumes 
to create spiritual agencies. Neither the natural 
powers, nor the substances on which they operate, nor 
the energies employed in such operation, are from man 
himself. Yet none calleth to mind, neither is there 
knowledge nor understanding to say, " I have burned 
part of it in the fire, yea, also, I have baked bread upon 
the coals thereof." 

Neither is there discernment to perceive that all 
these abstractions have only a human origin ; that they 
cannot rise higher than their source; and that in 



288 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

trusting in them and worshipping them, man is really 
trusting in and worshipping himself. Count the 
number of all these idols wherein the modern man 
reposes his confidence, and it will be found that their 
number is " the number of Man." 

We have said that, in trusting these creatures of 
his own imagination (for outside of human thought 
they have no existence), and in crediting them with all 
the fancied gains of humanity, past and future, man is 
really trusting and praising himself. It is highlv 
important for Christians to understand this, for their 
own safety. Thfe trust in, and glorification of, Man, is 
the very essence of the religion of Humanism, which, 
as we have seen, is gaining ground in every direction. 
Whichever way we have turned our eyes, we have seen 
this religion making its appearance and taking definite 
form and substance. It is true that the worship of 
Man as really Divine is not often openly avowed ; but 
frequently men engage in it quite unconsciously of 
what they are doing. The natural heart of man 
furnishes soil which is thoroughly congenial to the 
principles of Humanism, particularly to the idea that 
man is, in some measure, the agent of his own salva- 
tion. There is probably not a Christian denomination 
that is not more or less permeated by the leaven of 
legalism, or salvation through man's own works. We 
all, therefore, have need of the clearest warning of this 
danger. 



"THE SOUL OF THE RACE" 289 

But while Humanism is really the religion of many 
who are not conscious of it, some who understand their 
own attitude have already proclaimed its principles 
with a distinctness which leaves nothing to be desired 
on that score. For example, in the little manual of 
the "Religion of Humanity," from which we have 
already quoted, the commandments enjoined by this 
religion begin with the following paraphrase of Exodus 
xx., the main feature of the paraphrase being that in 
the place of God the writer has substituted the " Soul 
of the Race " : 

"And the Soul of the Race, the great white 
sacred Flame which was born of Human Love and 
slept through the ages of Injustice, Cruelty, and 
Fear, awoke from its Phantom-haunted slumber, 
and seeing on high the Shining Star of Hope, 
spoke these words, saying 

"I am the Spirit of Altruism, which brought 
thee out of the land of Selfishness, out of the 
House of Want, and out of the Bondage of the 
Mammon of Unrighteousness." 

This is the ground that the pioneers of Humanism 
have already reached ; and this is the direction in which 
the New Theologians, Modernists, Christian Socialists, 
and others are leading their followers. Doubtless 
many of these advanced (and advancing) theologians 
of to-day would say that the foregoing represents 
an extreme view, and that they do not countenance 



290 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

it. Nevertheless, the position taken by the writer 
of the above passage, which represents Humanism as 
stripped of all disguises, was not reached at a bound, 
but by steps. Those who are as yet a long way from 
that extreme position, but are moving towards it, will 
surely reach it sooner or later if their progress be not 
arrested ; and we have abundant reason for expecting 
that many will embrace to-morrow doctrines and 
principles which repel them to-day. 

The religion of this outspoken Humanist does not 
differ in principle from that of many who, without 
having so definitely formulated their creed, are just as 
truly, in their hearts, giving credit to human genius, 
under the names of " Science, Evolution, Progress," and 
the like, and who are saying in effect, " These be thy 
gods, which brought thee up out of primordial slime, 
and out of primitive barbarism ; and which are now 
bearing thee triumphantly forward to the golden 
age of human development, to the man-made paradise 
wherein perfect liberty shall be enjoyed by all humanity, 
and where man shall freely eat of every tree of the 
garden." 

We have said that men of these intellectual and 
enlightened days need not to make to themselves 
figures in wood or metal, or pictorial devices to 
represent their gods. Nevertheless, they often do so ; 
for our eyes are frequently greeted with figures of 



A TEMPLE OF HUMANISM 291 

stalwart and symmetrical females, which, we are told, 
represent Science, Art, Justice, Manufacture, Invention, 
etc. At the very gateway of this idolatrous land of 
America stands a figure colossal in man's sight but 
oh, how puny and contemptible in the sight of God ! 
representing " Liberty enlightening the World." The 
" Goddess of Liberty " surmounts the Capitol at Wash- 
ington ; and the most admired building there, the 
Congressional Library, is a veritable temple of 
Humanism, covered with designs and inscriptions to 
the praise and glory of Man. 

But it will be profitable to examine more closely 
some of these latter-day idols, in order that we may 
clearly understand of what they are composed, by whom 
they are made, and what claim they have upon our 
admiration and confidence. 



"SCIENCE" 

Here is an idol that has multitudes of worshippers, 
including the wise, the intellectual, and the cultivated 
of the earth, and whose great achievements are 
frequently extolled from prominent pulpits. Science 
is proclaimed as a great goddess. She advances 
majestically and triumphantly, sweeping away, with 
her puissant arm, the obstacles that would bar human 
progress. She blesses mankind in many ways, teaches 



LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

this and that, surprises her devotees daily with fresh 
marvels, works mighty miracles, manifests great signs 
and wonders, and eventually is to transform the world. 

We should recall at this point the part which the 
leaders of modern thought assign to " Science " in the 
great movements of the day. From what they say 
about " Science," it will be seen that we indulge in no 
exaggeration in characterizing the latter as one of the 
most conspicuous idols of this idolatrous generation. 

I wish it to be clearly understood that it is solely 
against the theological use (or abuse) which, in our day, is 
so freely made of the abstraction called " Science," that 
I utter my earnest protest a use which I unhesitatingly 
characterize as sheer idolatry. There is undoubtedly 
a strong tendency in the mind of the average man to 
exaggerate the physical benefits which have come to 
humanity through the better comprehension of the 
materials and forces of nature, and in general through 
those pursuits which are classed as "scientific. 11 But 
this exaggeration of physical benefits is a small matter. 
When, however, we have spiritual results attributed to 
Science, and not only so, but results of a revolutionary 
character nothing less, in fact, than the removal of 
the ancient foundations of faith, and the substitution 
therefor of other foundations entirely of modern con- 
struction and human fabrication we have to deal with 
a matter of the very highest importance. We have no 
quarrel whatever with the investigation of the physical 



AN IMAGINARY "SCIENCE" 293 

universe, nor with those who devote themselves thereto, 
though we expect no real gain to mankind from their 
efforts. Nothing is worthier of the natural powers of 
man than the study of the works of God, which " are 
great, and are sought out of all them that have 
pleasure therein " (Ps. cxi. 2). I believe that no true 
man of Science (and I have enjoyed the acquaintance 
of many) will take exception to this protest against the 
use which the new theologies are making of an imaginary 
" Science," a creature of their own imaginations, having 
no real existence. 

Thus the Modernists declare their task to be the 
bringing of "the religious experience of Christianity 
into line with the data of contemporary science and 
philosophy"; while at the other extreme, that of 
advanced Protestantism, Mr. Campbell declares the 
New Theology to be "the religion of Science," "the 
recognition that, upon the foundations laid by modern 
Science, a vaster and nobler fabric of faith is rising 
than the world has ever before known." 

Mr. Newman Smith declares that "the two factors 
of modern civilization are Science and Democracy," and 
that the Modernists are " laying broad foundations in 
history, science, and democracy." 

In full accord with these utterances are the conclu- 
sions stated by Dr. Broda in his article on "The 
Future of Religion." He says, for example, that 
among all the white races " the historic faith has been 



294 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

saturated with new scientific and social ideas 1 '; that 
among the causes of the current revolution in religions 
"the first place must be given to the discoveries of 
modern science"; that among agnostics there are 
tendencies towards " realizing the religious significance 
of the new discoveries of science " ; that even among 
the semi-civilized nations " are springing up new creeds 
which are cultivating the modern scientific spirit " ; and 
finally, that " the religion to come will be rooted in the 
new concepts of science and the modern social spirit." 

Such statements as these, coming from leaders of 
movements apparently far apart, and yet in such 
striking accord on this point, render it highly important 
that we should inquire closely into the exact relation 
between " Science " and human welfare. " And this 
we will do, if God permit. " 

Furthermore, church-goers are often exhorted by the 
preachers of our day to consider what untold benefits 
Science has bestowed upon mankind. They are 
reminded that Science has illumined the pathway of 
humanity, dispelling the darkness of past ages, and is 
still prosecuting the gigantic undertaking of banishing 
ignorance and superstition from the earth. It is Science 
that is relieving want, and is blessing humanity by 
unlocking the storehouse of nature ; while He who filled 
that storehouse is too often forgotten. It is Science 
that has stricken off the shackles that once fettered the 
human intellect. It is Science that, unwearied by past 



u TEACHINGS OF SCIENCE " 295 

achievements but rather stimulated thereby, is about to 
do yet more startling things, for which the world waits 
with breathless expectation. 

And not only so, but Science is now put forward as 
the great Teacher, to which men are bidden to look for a 
sure and progressive revelation of truth. We commonly 
hear references, in the most reverential tones, to " the 
teachings of Science." As an authority on Truth, and a 
revealer of the same, Science is exalted to a place higher 
than that accorded to the Word of God ; and people 
who have no means of investigating such statements are 
repeatedly assured that Science has detected and cor- 
rected many errors in the Scriptures. I speak of what is 
commonly heard from the pulpits of our churches, and 
what nearly all church-goers have heard again and 
again. The Lord Jesus said that the Scriptures cannot 
be broken. But the occupants of some of our pulpits 
take it upon themselves to assure their congregations, 
on the authority of Science, that the Scriptures have 
been broken, and have been shown to be in many 
places exceedingly untrustworthy. It is the word of 
Science, which, according to this class of preachers, is 
really to be trusted. 

It is well for us to understand clearly that the spirit 
of " Science " is not friendly to Christianity, but is, on 
the contrary, its deadly foe. This ought not to be, 
since the study of any part of creation should tend to 
reveal to the teachable mind the identity of the God 



296 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

of nature with the God of revelation. But since the 
spirit of modern science is manifestly " the spirit of the 
world" (1 Cor. ii. 12), "the spirit that now works in 
the children of disobedience," let us recognize it as an 
enemy, suspect all its fair professions, and, when 
occasion offers, smite it in the name of the Lord. 

When the Ark of the Lord, containing the tables of 
the Law of God, was brought into the temple of Dagon, 
the image of Dagon fell on his face to the earth before 
the Ark. And it was to no purpose that the worship- 
pers of Dagon set him in his place again ; for " when 
they arose early on the morrow morning, behold, 
Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before 
the Ark of the Lord ; and the head of Dagon and both 
the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold ; 
only the stump of Dagon was left to him " (1 Sam. v. 
3,4). 

So it will be if we bring the Word of the Lord to 
bear upon this modern Dagon whom religious men 
worship under the name of " Science." It will be seen 
to be without head or hands ; devoid of true wisdom 
and knowledge, and impotent to accomplish anything 
for the benefit of its worshippers. 

Christian people will also do well to remember that 
among " the assured results of Science " one of the 
most conspicuous is this, that the imaginary Science of 
which we are speaking has made infidelity, not only 
respectable, but actually a mark of superior learning 



A RADICAL STATEMENT 297 

and intelligence. Before Science was set up in the 
temple of modern civilization, men might disbelieve 
and reject the statements of God's Word ; but there 
was then no counter-authority to which they could 
appeal in support of their unbelief. This lack of a 
counter-authority to the Bible, the name of " Science " 
has supplied, and thereby the hands of unbelief have 
been greatly strengthened. 

What truth, then, is there in the statements, such as 
we have quoted, concerning the religious bearing and 
value of the teachings of Science ? The answer is, 
There is in them no truth whatever. The revelations 
of Science, whatever else they may have accomplished, 
have done absolutely nothing- towards meeting the 
spiritual needs of humanity, or enlarging its spiritual 
knowledge. This is a radical statement, and since 
the matter is of the utmost importance, the writer 
feels amply justified in discussing it with care and 
thoroughness. 

Considering first the subject of "the teachings of 
Science," so far as they have any religious or spiritual 
bearing at all, it is to be noted that among the various 
and often contradictory things that have been taught 
in the name of Science, there has never been anything 
positive, never anything in the nature of a contribution 
to spiritual truth. We shall see presently that Science, 
by reason of its obvious and recognized limitations, 
could not possibly make any such contributions. But 



298 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

it is enough here to note the fact. The use to which 
the name of Science has been put in the domain of 
religion has been to contradict certain things which 
have been held and taught as true on the authority of 
Scripture. And the matters so contradicted have 
necessarily been of a historic nature and connected with 
the physical creation ; such, for example, as the 
accuracy of the account of the six days' work recorded 
in the first chapter of Genesis, the occurrence of a 
universal deluge, and the like. Indeed, these two 
topics (the six days 1 work and the deluge) practically 
exhaust the matters revealed in Scripture upon which 
men who assume to speak for Science have ever had 
anything definite to say. Even as to such subjects as 
the miracles of Old Testament times, and those per- 
formed by the Lord Jesus, Science cannot speak. For 
these are purely questions oijact, to be believed or not 
according to the evidence ; and Science has no evidence 
whatever on these subjects, and is incapable of obtaining 
any that has the slightest degree of pertinence. As to 
these matters of history, and still more so as to all 
matters relating to the being of God, the soul of man, 
the future state, eternal life and eternal death, and all 
that is embraced in the great theme of Redemption, 
human beings are absolutely and necessarily dependent 
upon Divine revelation for all the information they 
have, or ever can have. Upon these matters, or, as 
we might broadly say, upon all that comes within the 



NO SPIRITUAL HELP IN SCIENCE 299 

scope of religious faith, Science does not, and cannot, 
throw the faintest ray of light. On all these subjects, 
the men of this scientific age have no better and no 
other sources of information than those of the ages 
that are past. 

Let any one who is disposed to question this state- 
ment, test it for himself, as he may easily do. Let him 
diligently inquire of himself what single fact Science 
has revealed to him which has added in the smallest 
degree to his spiritual information. Let him then ask 
the preachers of Science to mention specifically some 
bits of information having a spiritual or religious value 
for which mankind is indebted to "the teaching of 
Science." The result will surely convince the inquirer 
that the fulsome tributes to Science, such as we have 
quoted above, and in which current religious literature 
of the popular sort abounds, have absolutely nothing 
to rest upon. The truth is that modern (or ancient) 
Science has contributed nothing whatever to our fund 
of spiritual or moral information. Science has brought 
to humanity not one thing' whereby the tried and 
tempted soul may be helped in his struggles with the 
evils of his nature and environment ; not one thing to 
aid in solving the problems of life, to strengthen and 
encourage the weary pilgrim on life's pathway, or to 
shed the feeblest ray of light upon that darkness 
through which it leads. 

Never has there been a greater imposture practised 



300 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

upon the ignorant, easily deceived masses of men, who 
are being " destroyed for lack of knowledge," than that 
which certain religious teachers systematically carry on, 
in arraying Science as a religious authority in opposi- 
tion to the Word of God. This idol, a creature of 
man's evil imagination, which has done no more for the 
spiritual good of man than Baal or Jupiter, is not only 
set up as a teacher and revealer of truth on a level 
with the Word of God, but even on a higher level; 
for the chief religious use to which the name of Science 
is put, is to appeal to it as an authority for statements 
contradictory to those of the Bible. 

And this crime is all the worse in its nature and 
consequences because, of the people who look to the 
pulpit for their teaching, there are very few who are 
able to investigate these statements for themselves. A 
scientific education is regarded as if it were a sort of 
initiation into the higher mysteries ; and those who 
have not enjoyed such privileges are easily persuaded 
to accept anything introduced by the conventional 
phrase, " Modern Science has taught us." 

The writer of these pages is speaking here from an 
experience which is surely sufficient to test the truth cf 
what he is saying ; and, before making these radical 
statements concerning the relation of Science to the 
spiritual enlightenment of mankind, he has first 
assured himself that, as the result of twenty-five 
years 1 diligent scientific study and inquiry, he has not 



FRUITLESS INVESTIGATIONS 301 

gained for himself so much as a single scrap of spiritual 
knowledge. 

It is but fair to say, in this connection, that men of 
science themselves are relatively free from this worship 
of "Science." The farther a man advances in 
scientific studies, the less likely he is to be tainted with 
that particular form of idolatry, so prevalent among 
those who desire above all things to be thought 
scientific. One of the most prominent workers in the 
field of applied science 1 lately said that if scientific 
discoveries should proceed at the present rate of 
progress for a few thousand years, humanity might by 
that time have accumulated sufficient data to begin 
to draw a few conclusions. This is in accord with the 
statement of Scripture, "If any man think that he 
knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought 
to know " (1 Cor. viii. 2). 

Such men know full well that scientific investigations 
have brought to light absolutely nothing that could 
by any possibility be the basis of religious faith, or 
that tends in the slightest degree to reveal the 
relations of the soul of man with the Supreme Being, 
the Creator of the Universe. 

Even as to the origin and nature of physical life, the 
results of scientific investigations are utterly inadequate 
to explain its simplest phenomena. On this subject, 
Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace says : 

1 Mr. Thomas A. Edison. 



302 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

" As to the deeper problems of life, and growth 
and reproduction, though our physiologists have 
learned an infinite amount of curious or instructive 
facts, they can give us no intelligible explanation 
of them.'" 

If Science can give no intelligible explanation of the 
phenomena of physical life, which all are able to 
observe, what folly it would be to look to that source 
for information concerning the phenomena of spiritual 
life, which lie in a sphere beyond the reach of the 



senses : 



Many of those who set up Science as an authority 
in opposition to the Bible, fail to distinguish between 
Science and Philosophy. The former has solely to do 
\v\\hjacts ascertained by examination of the accessible 
universe ; and since it is only the physical universe that 
is accessible, and but very little of that, it is quite 
impossible that Science should bring to light any facts 
bearing one way or the other upon matters of spiritual 
truth. But Philosophy has to do with the explanation 
of the universe, and its contents ; and of philosophies 
there have been no end. When one passes from the 
consideration of a fact or thing to the explanation of 
that fact or thing, he passes from the domain of Science 
to that of Philosophy. 

For example, the stone axes, stone hammers, and 
other stone implements which have been discovered in 
various places are facts which cannot be controverted. 



PHILOSOPHIC EXPLANATIONS 303 

Their discovery is a fact of Science. But the explana- 
tion of the origin of these stone axes is a matter 
which belongs to Philosophy. Mr. Wallace (in " Man's 
Place in the Universe ") quotes a seventeenth century 
explanation of the origin of stone axes by Andrianus 
Tollius (1649) which will furnish an excellent illustra- 
tion of what some people esteem to be highly 
scientific : 

" He gives drawings of some ordinary stone 
axes and hammers, and tells how naturalists say 
that they are generated in the sky by a fulgareous 
exhalation conglobed in a cloud by the circumfixed 
humour, and are as it were baked by intense heat ; 
and the weapon becomes pointed by the damp 
mixed with it flying from the dry part, leav- 
ing the other denser; but the exhalations press 
it so hard that it breaks through the cloud 
and makes thunder and lightning. But if this 
is really the way they are generated, it is odd 
that they are not round, and that they have 
holes in them. It is hardly to be believed, he 
thinks." 

Philosophers are now able to furnish a more probable 
explanation of the origin of stone axes ; but when we 
come to some of their explanations of even the physical 
being of man, of his nature and tendencies to evil, of 
the presence of sin and death in the world, we have 
verbal formulas which are but little more intelligible 



304 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

than the foregoing, and have no more foundation in 
fact. 1 

If, then, it be true, as I have asserted, that the 
teachings of Science are destitute of religious significance 
and value, what meaning have such statements as that 
" upon the foundations laid by modern science a vaster, 
nobler fabric of faith is rising than the world has ever 
before known"; and that "Science is supplying the 
facts which the New Theology is weaving into the 
texture of religious experience " ? 

The answer must be that these statements are 

1 I have not reviewed in this volume the status and 
tendency of Modern Philosophy. The influence exerted 
by speculative philosophy upon the social and religious 
movements of the day is undoubtedly great, but it is un- 
obtrusive. The author has dealt briefly with this subject 
in a pamphlet entitled Modern Philosophy : A Menace to Hie 
English-Speaking Nations (Morgan & Scott Ltd., London). 
For present purposes it will suffice to say that the Bible 
account of God, man, and the universe has been discarded 
by the leading universities of England and America, and 
has been supplanted by a species of Pantheism known in 
philosophic parlance as " Monistic Idealism." The funda- 
mental doctrine of this philosophy is the same as that of 
Humanism, to wit, the identity in substance and being of 
God and man. Modern philosophy is, therefore, in line 
with the other forces which are urging mankind onward 
to the Great Consolidation. The effect of this philosophic 
scheme is indicated in the last chapter of this volume, 
" Ultimate Intellectualism." 



"GREAT SWELLING WORDS" 305 

utterly void, not only of truth, but even of meaning. 
Science has never yet furnished, and is utterly incapable 
of furnishing, anything which could conceivably be a 
basis of faith, or which could, by any possibility 
whatever, be woven into the texture of religious 
experience. These are " great swelling words," utterly 
void of sense ; yet in this careless age they fall upon 
the ears of people again and again, without even 
stimulating them to inquire whether they have a 
meaning or not. 

Faith has to do (and necessarily) with unseen things ; 
that is to say, things that are beyond the reach of 
investigation by man. Faith is the evidence of (or 
more literally the conviction concerning) " things not 
seen " (Heb. xi. 1). Science, on the contrary, has to 
do solely with seen things, that is to say, with the 
visible and accessible universe. 

" Faith comes by hearing," or " by the report " ; and 
the hearing or report comes " by the Word of God." 
(Rom. x. 17). That is to say, faith is the result of 
receiving and believing the testimony of Scripture. 
The only ground where there could possibly be any 
conflict between Science and the Bible is in respect to 
statements contained in the latter about events said to 
have happened in past ages on the earth. In respect to 
such matters, human sciences might discover facts which 
seem to contradict the statements of the Bible. Thus 
Science might afford a limited basis for unbelief; but 



306 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

by no possibility could it be the basis of faith. But no 
facts contradicting statements of Scripture have ever 
been discovered, and the believer knows that none 
exist. So much for the teachings of Science, and the 
impossibility that it could ever furnish a substitute for 
Revelation as the basis of faith. But it should also be 
noted that " Science," in the sense in which that name 
is used by the advanced theologians of our day, has no 
existence. As a counter-authority to the Bible in 
matters of spiritual truth, Science is referred to as an 
entity comparable to the Bible capable of being 
consulted like the latter ; and indeed it is regarded as 
if it were a being of supernatural powers, living on 
from age to age, and guiding successive generations of 
human beings in their onward inarch. Surely there 
never was a greater delusion than this, or one practised 
on so large a scale. 

It is, of course, entirely permissible to speak of 
Science as an existing entity, in a purely figurative way, 
so long as it is kept in mind that we are using a figure 
of speech. But the usage of the name " Science " is 
such that the figure of speech is wholly lost sight of; 
and people are taught that Science has an actual 
existence, is giving forth authoritative teachings, and 
is accomplishing real results for humanity. Manifestly 
the teachings of Scripture cannot be contradicted by a 
mere figure of speech. 

Furthermore, such statements as we have quoted are 



NO MOUTHPIECE FOR SCIENCE 307 

exceedingly misleading, in that they disregard the fact 
that, even in the figurative sense, there is not one 
comprehensive " Science " to which men may look for 
instruction. There are a number of distinct and 
separate sciences; and such are the limitations of 
human capacity that no man can be proficient in more 
than one. Hence there does not, and cannot, exist 
any mouthpiece through which Science could impart 
her instruction, if she had any to impart. And not 
only so, but it frequently happens that the deductions 
which might reasonably be made from the data of one 
science are inconsistent with conclusions deducible from 
the data of another science. Thus, there are such 
distinct departments of the field of scientific inquiry as 
Geology, Physiology, Biology, Astronomy, Physics, etc. ; 
and each of them covers so much ground that no man, 
however diligent and capable, can be really proficient 
in more than one of them. It follows that, assuming a 
state of general scientific knowledge (which really does 
not exist), no human being is, or ever can be, qualified 
to speak for Science, so as to say what is the voice of 
Science at any time, on any subject extending over the 
whole scientific field. 

There is, therefore, no depository of the teachings of 
Science to which one may resort when desirous of 
learning what that authority has to say on any matter 
relating to his spiritual welfare, and there exists no one 
who is either qualified or authorized to speak for Science 



308 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

on these matters. Since it is utterly impossible for the 
people who are taught by theologians of this sort to 
test the correctness of their doctrines, the former are 
completely at the mercy of the latter, and thus there is 
established a religious despotism worse than that of 
Rome. On the other hand, those who rest their 
doctrines solely upon the authority of Scripture, are 
always subject to a ready test of the correctness of 
their teaching. 

But it is well worth while, in view of the use to 
which the name of Science is being put every day, 
to go even further into detail, in order that we may 
ascertain with certainty whether the discoveries, in any 
of the separate departments of scientific research, 
possess a spiritual value, or have any bearing upon 
spiritual matters. It will be sufficient, for this purpose, 
to interrogate three of the sciences which have been 
probably the most active and progressive during the 
past fifty years, namely, Astronomy, Chemistry, and 
Geology. 

ASTRONOMY 

What new religious conceptions have come to 
mankind through the medium of astronomy ? This 
important branch of Science has to do with the 
heavens ; and surely to it, if to any, we may hopefully 
look for something that will enlarge our stock of 
religious information. 



THE SCIENCE OF THE STARS 309 

Moreover, astronomy continues to be, up to this 
time, a " pure " Science ; that is to say, it has not 
been (perhaps because it cannot well be) debased to 
commercial ends. Those who devote themselves to the 
study of astronomy must do so from a pure love of 
investigation, and not from sordid motives. These 
facts commend the results of astronomical research to 
our respectful consideration, and so we would earnestly 
inquire in what way, if any, those results have inured 
to the spiritual benefit of mankind. 

The chief modern discoveries in the realm of 
astronomy have been made by the aid of the spectro- 
scope. By means of this instrument certain interesting 
facts have been noted, and from observations thus made, 
astronomers have been led to the conclusion that the 
star-systems throughout the whole universe are com- 
posed of matter of the same sort as that of our solar 
system. From this it has been inferred (and not 
unreasonably) that the universe is an entity, whose 
parts, notwithstanding the immense distances said to 
separate them, are all in some manner related. 

The oneness of the universe is esteemed to be the 
greatest discovery of modern astronomy, and we may 
cheerfully admit it to be a discovery of great interest 
and astronomical importance. We would ask then, 
what is its spiritual value ? In what way does it 
touch and help in the solution of the problems of 
every-day life on this planet ? What advantage does 



310 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

it give in the way of spiritual enlightenment or 
spiritual strength to the man of to-day, which was 
not enjoyed by those who lived before the spectro- 
scope was invented? This is the practical test to 
which we must bring the discoveries of modern science 
for the purposes of our present inquiry. It is obvious 
that, while this greatest of all achievements of modern 
astronomy may give the occupants of our pulpits 
something about which they may discourse with a 
show of learning, it furnishes them with no new 
weapon against evil, and with no new means for 
comforting and helping needy and perishing humanity. 
One cannot go to a soul in distress with the message 
that the spectroscope has revealed the uniformity of 
nature, or comfort the sorrowing and afflicted with 
the assurance that the star-systems are composed of 
matter of the same sort as our earth. 

Another achievement of modern astronomy is the 
alleged determination of the distances and dimensions 
of some of the nearer stars. At least, we are assured 
that the appalling figures given to us do really re- 
present these distances and dimensions with some 
approach to accuracy. Conceding the correctness of 
these figures, what we wish to know is the effect which 
the knowledge of these prodigious strings of numerals 
has had upon the religious life of the modern man who 
enjoys the benefit of them. How many persons know 
the distance in light-years of a single one of the few 



ASTRONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS 311 

stars whose distances have been computed; and of 
those who enjoy that precious information, how many 
have found it of practical value in their daily lives ? 

One of the very latest achievements of astronomy 
has been (or at least we are so informed) the deter- 
mination of the orbit of an invisible satellite of the 
planet Jupiter. Assuming the existence of the satel- 
lite and the correctness of this determination, we 
would ask how those who obtain possession of this 
information are to weave it into the fabric of their 
" religious experience " ? 

We need not, however, confine ourselves in this 
inquiry to the astronomical discoveries of recent years. 
We may go back to what is regarded as the very 
beginning of astronomical science, namely to the time 
when the Ptolemaic theory of the universe was replaced 
by the Copernican - Newtonian theory. If we ask 
what spiritual advantage is enjoyed by the man of 
to-day over those who regarded the earth as the centre 
of the universe, and the heavenly bodies as its attend- 
ants, it will be impossible to discover any. 

Surely it is needless to consider further the dis- 
coveries and teachings of the science of astronomy, in 
order to show the emptiness and miserable deceit of 
those who seek to turn men aside from the Word of 
God by the pretence that upon " the foundations laid 
by modern science" they may build a vaster and 
nobler fabric of religious faith. The grandest dis- 



312 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

coveries of the sublime science of the stars are pitifully 
and absurdly inadequate to serve for any such purpose. 

Astronomy may indeed reveal something of the 
grandeur and magnificence of God's creation ; but it 
can tell us nothing of His love and compassion for 
sinners. It may trace the course of the Milky Way ; 
but it cannot show to perishing souls the way of 
eternal life. It may tell men how far the earth is 
from the sun ; but it cannot tell the believing sinner 
how far God puts his transgressions from him. It 
may calculate the orbits of comets and the magnitudes 
of the heavenly bodies ; but it cannot explore or reveal 
the unsearchable riches of Christ, or tell us aught of 
the rising of the Bright and Morning Star. 

In view of these things, it is not too much to say that 
the annals of heathen superstition and idolatry contain 
nothing more egregiously superstitions or more grossly 
idolatrous than the modern man's worship of Science as 
a religious teacher superior to the Word of the living 
God. 

CHEMISTRY 

Let us turn now to another field of scientific investi- 
gation, where great activity has been displayed, and 
where many practical and highly interesting discoveries 
have been made in recent years; and let us inquire 
whether, among all these results of modern chemistry, 
there are any contributions to the sum of human 



PROGRESS IN CHEMISTRY 313 

knowledge of spiritual matters, or any which have a 
spiritual value or application. Although we have 
failed with the telescope of the astronomer to discover, 
in the domain of his science, any spiritual facts, or 
anything which men could weave into the fabric of 
their religious experience, we may perhaps be more 
fortunate with the miscroscope of the physicist. 

So diligently and so effectively has chemical research 
been pursued during the past fifty years, that, within 
that period, its text-books have been entirely rewritten. 
This science has, within that period, been put upon an 
entirely new basis, under the revolutionary influence 
of what is known as the "atomic theory." During 
the same period a great mass of facts regarding the 
properties of matter, and in particular regarding the 
actions of various substances upon each other, has been 
accumulated. Many new reactions have been dis- 
covered ; and out of all this have come numerous new 
and useful commodities and many new industrial 
processes. 

But if the atomic theory be capable of serving as 
the basis of a new chemistry, the very slightest 
acquaintance with it will suffice to show that it could 
not by any possibility serve as the basis of a new 
theology. Indeed, it may be regarded as fortunate 
that one's faith has not rested for its support upon 
the atomic theory, since that theory seems to have 
had its day, and is apparently about to give way to a 
21 



314 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

brand new theory of " ions " or " electrons." For the 
current teaching of advanced chemistry is that the 
hypothetical "atom," so far from being the ultimate 
particle of matter, as was until now held as the basic 
fact of chemical science, is itself composed of a count- 
less multitude of " electrons," all of them in excessively 
rapid motion. 

From this and from similar incidents we may learn 
that, if the foundations of a human science be 
destroyed, it is no great matter ; for that science may 
be built anew upon other foundations, and may stand 
with apparent solidity and permanence until these in 
turn give way. But if the foundations of faith be 
destroyed, there is nothing for the righteous to do. 
If Christ be not raised from the dead, their faith is 
vain, they are yet in their sins; and, moreover, they 
also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished. 
It would be the end of hope as well as the end of faith. 
For if in this life only we have hope, if Jesus Christ 
be not entered with another life into the holy place, 
and if we have not this hope as an anchor of the soul 
both sure and stedfast, then are we of all men most 
miserable. 

Those who are enraptured with the doings of this 
scientific era may bestow upon the discoveries of 
chemistry all the admiration whereof they deem them 
worthy, and to that we should offer no objection. 
But when simple-minded people, easily overawed by 



WHAT CHEMISTRY CANNOT DO 315 

long words and imposing names, and who have no 
facilities for investigating the statements made to 
them, are told by their religious instructors that the 
modern sciences have displaced the old foundations of 
faith, and have replaced them with other and more 
enduring foundations, upon which is rising a vaster and 
nobler fabric of faith than the world has ever before 
known, we do most earnestly protest against such utter- 
ances as. mischievous and soul-destroying falsehoods. 

Modern chemistry may have given us better soap, 
but it has discovered no means for cleansing the heart 
from sin. It may have transformed the art of tanning 
leather, and supplied many new dye-stuffs for our 
textile fabrics ; but it can furnish no oil of joy for 
mourning, and no garment of praise for the spirit of 
heaviness. It may produce illuminating devices for 
dispelling the darkness of nature, and high explosives 
for destroying life and removing mountains; but it 
cannot give light to them that sit in darkness and the 
shadow of death, or blow up the barrier that sin has 
placed between man and a thrice-holy God. It may 
even fill men^s bodies with drugs and medicines ; but 
it cannot fill their hearts with joy and peace. 

GEOLOGY 

Very briefly we look at another interesting field of 
scientific research. Geology is comparatively an infant 



316 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

among the family of sciences, and (like other infants) 
it has much to learn. But (and again like other 
infants) it has assumed to teach, often with great 
positiveness, in regard to matters whereof it is but 
just beginning to get hold of the facts. Hence a 
supposed conflict which made considerable noise a few 
decades ago (but of which we now hear very little) 
between the teachings of Geology and those of Genesis, 
touching certain events in the long-past history of the 
earth. 

Geology concerns itself with the study of the earth's 
crust ; and the investigations of men in that interesting 
field have resulted in the accumulation of much 
fragmentary information concerning the constitution 
of the upper part of the crust of the earth upon which 
we live : but the information thus far accumulated is 
relatively meagre. Geology has, in addition to facts 
of the nature indicated above, furnished a large and 
varied assortment of guesses concerning the method 
of formation of the earth's crust, the sequence and 
remoteness in time of the several layers whereof it is 
composed, the nature of certain catastrophes which 
have left their marks upon and under the earth's 
surface, the condition of the earth's interior, and the 
like. All this is interesting, no doubt, and, in its place, 
may be highly important. Furthermore, all studies of 
nature are profitable to the reverent mind, which sees 
everywhere in nature the evidences of the manifold 



DEFICIENCIES OF GEOLOGY 317 

wisdom of God. " O Lord, how manifold are Thy 
works ! In wisdom hast Thou made them all " (Ps. 
civ. 24). " The works of the Lord are great, sought 
out of all them that have pleasure therein'' 1 (Ps. 
cxi. 2). 

But we shall search in vain among the facts and 
theories of geology for anything which is of religious 
value, or which has any bearing whatever upon the 
relation of the soul of man to the Creator and to 
the universe. 

Geology may make known to us something of the 
riches which God has stored in the mine ; but it cannot 
help us to know the riches of the glory of His inherit- 
ance in the saints, or the fulness of Him in whom 
dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. It may 
impart some measure of information concerning the for- 
mation of the earth's crust during ages past ; but it can 
tell nothing of God's eternal purposes which are to be 
fulfilled in the ages to come. It can show us, in the 
fossiliferous rocks, the graves of once-living creatures, 
over which death has established its awful power ; but 
it can tell us nothing about the resurrection from the 
dead, and the restitution of all things which God has 
spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the 
world began. 

This consideration of the three active sciences of the 
day will surely suffice to expose the emptiness and 



318 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

deceit of such statements as that " Science is supplying 
the facts which the New Theology is weaving into the 
texture of religious experience.' 1 Yet the frequency 
with which one meets such utterances, and the astound- 
ing disposition of the mass of people to accept them 
without challenge or scrutiny, justifies the most 
thorough investigation of this particular form of 
idolatry. We have not yet got to the bottom of it, 
and so we pursue the subject a little further. 

WHAT IS "SCIENCE"? THE QUEST OF AN 
ANXIOUS SOUL FOR ITS TEACHINGS. 

We are now in a position to ask, Who, or what, 
after all, is " Science " ? Where is its shrine ? Who is 
its accredited mouthpiece? Suppose that some poor 
ignorant stumbler in the darkness of this world has 
heard, in an eloquent sermon delivered by some 
" eminent divine," that a great goddess called " Science " 
has visited the earth charged with the glorious 
mission of dispelling its gloom, and releasing the poor 
captives who have long been held in the grievous 
bondage of ignorance and superstition. He may not 
know just what these phrases mean ; but they sound 
good, and he does know the burden of his own heart, 
and realizes fully that he is in sore trouble and need. 
So great, in fact, is his sense of need that he catches 
eagerly at any offer of deliverance. So he sets himself 



THE QUEST FOR "SCIENCE" 319 

to ascertain just what Science has to say about his case, 
and to learn what remedy she can furnish to cure the 
sickness of his soul, and to bring peace to his troubled 
conscience. To whom shall he go for this information, 
and for the particular facts which are needful to be 
woven into the fabric of his religious experience? 
This is the practical test of all the systems of New 
Theology, Modernism, and the like ; and its application 
at once reveals the fact already stated, that there is no 
such thing as Science. It is an abstraction, an idol, a 
creature of the human imagination, which men have set 
up, and to which they have attributed real existence 
and superhuman powers. It has no more to say for 
the guidance of the human soul than the crudest idol 
to which the most ignorant savages address their 
worship. 

If the seeker listens to the voices of those who assume 
to speak for Science, he hears a perfect Babel of contra- 
dictory utterances, no two in agreement on any matter 
connected with the mysteries of the soul, and none of 
them even assuming to give him the help he needs. 

If he continues the search, determined to ascertain 
just what reality there is to which the name of 
" Science " could be attached, what he shall find is (1) a 
few men, mortals and sinners like himself, and just as 
much in need of Divine aid, who are devoting part of 
their time to the observation, each as best he may and 
in the manner he deems most effective, of some tiny 



320 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

portion of the visible universe ; and (2) a great many 
large books, containing a vast number of statements 
and conjectures, for the most part quite unintelligible 
to the ordinary reader, and quite unprofitable to the 
few who are able to grasp their meaning, a large part 
of the contents of these books being devoted to dis- 
puting, questioning, or pouring contempt upon, the 
assertions of other like books. Such is the " state of 
Science " in this enlightened century ; and it is well to 
bear in mind what has been already said, that it is not 
from true men of science that the statements we are 
considering proceed. 

It is very important for us to understand that there 
is no one who has either the authority or the ability 
to speak for Science, and that it is quite impossible to 
ascertain what is the authoritative teaching of Science 
on any matter of real importance. On the other 
hand, those who receive instruction on the authority 
of the Bible can readily ascertain whether or not the 
teaching be scriptural. 

It is also well for all to understand that the matters 
regarding the physical universe and the physical life of 
creatures therein, which have been definitely settled as 
the result of human investigations, are very few in 
number, and that among them is nothing that could 
furnish any spiritual information or moral aid to a 
human being. 

We do not stop to consider the contributions which 



COMPLEXITIES OF MODERN LIFE 

the discoveries of men have made to the physical 
comforts and conveniences of life ; for these things do 
not lie within the scope of our inquiry. It may be 
conceded that the ingenuity and industry of the modern 
man have brought into existence, as new social factors, 
many devices, machines, engines, processes, and ap- 
pliances, which have made the existence of human 
beings in the mortal body a very different thing from 
what it was a few generations ago, and which incident- 
ally have also added much to the complexities, anxieties, 
and dangers of life. Whether humanity as a whole is 
really any better off' for these things, is a question as to 
which there are radical differences of opinion ; but since 
that is a question which concerns the world only and those 
who are of it, we shall not spend time upon it. What 
is important for those who are in the world but not of 
it, is to grasp clearly the fact that, in respect of instruc- 
tion or light upon spiritual matters, mankind owes 
absolutely nothing, and less than nothing, to that 
abstraction which is adored under the name of 
" Science." On the contrary, this abstraction is the 
cover for an enemy, and a formidable one, since it is 
being used to blind mankind to the only true Light, 
and to divert perishing sinners from the only Way 
of life. 

If one would learn from an eminent man of science 
just what the latter has to offer as a basis of faith, or a 
religious support, he could not do better than to read a 



322 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

book, lately published, entitled The Substance of' Faith 
Allied with Science, by Sir Oliver Lodge, who stands 
well to the front among living men of science. This 
is a very serious work, written by a man of naturally 
reverential mind and religious temperament ; and in it 
he attempts (quoting his own words) " to lay a sound 
foundation such as can stand scientific scrutiny and 
reasonable rationalistic attack." This is probably the 
best attempt that has yet been made to put before 
men, in the name of Science, something which may be 
substituted for the Word of God as the basis of faith. 
Yet it is in no spirit of cavilling, or of disrespect for 
the eminent author, that the present writer declares 
the book to be utterly void of anything that could be 
called the " substance of faith." It contains merely a 
string of insipidities, inspiring no confidence, imparting 
no conviction, containing absolutely no message for 
the heart and mind, and leaving even the curiosity 
unsatisfied. 

It is not in the nature of what is called " Science " to 
reveal spiritual certainties or to impart conviction. 
The inquiring soul never obtained, as the result of a 
scientific quest for spiritual information, however dili- 
gently pursued, anything better than a conjecture. No 
other result is attainable in that way. Of the sources 
of information available to mankind, the WORD OF GOD 
is alone capable of imparting absolute conviction to the 
human heart and mind. To this end is it given, that the 



THE GREATEST OF THE IDOLATRIES 323 

believer might know the certainty of those things 
wherein he has been instructed (Luke i. 4). 

The final conclusion of this branch of our inquiry, 
and which brings us to the bottom of the subject, is 
that the "Science" of the New Theologies is merely one 
of the names under which Man worships himself. This is 
the simple and sufficient explanation of the use which 
is made of the name " Science " in the new theologies, 
and in all systems which are working towards the 
establishment of the religion of Humanism, that last 
and greatest of all the idolatries of the earth "the 
depths of Satan." 

EVOLUTION 

Here we have the name of another idol, closely 
related to the foregoing, and to which, but a few years 
back, all but universal homage was paid by the wise 
and learned of the earth. The entire universe, includ- 
ing the bodies and souls of men, was confidently 
affirmed to be the product of Evolution. It was indeed 
conceded by those who fashioned this particular idol, 
that their god did not create the original substance out 
of which the universe was fashioned, and that probably 
he had been supplied from some " unknowable " source 
with matter, in a nebulous or undifferentiated condi- 
tion, wherewith to begin the business of creation ; but 
certainly Evolution (so we were told) fashioned every- 



324 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

thing, animate and inanimate, into what it is to-day : 
and, what is more, Evolution has produced this infinite 
variety of created things out of a single simple kind of 
material. 

In more recent times there has been a rapidly 
growing disposition among scientific men to discredit 
the Darwinian theory of origin of species (which is 
what many people understand by " Evolution ") ; but, 
as the controlling principle of the progressive changes 
in the affairs of humanity, Evolution holds its supreme 
place in the thought of the learned and wise of the day. 

It is with the religious aspect of Evolution that we 
have to do, and into this we would thoroughly inquire. 
It is no figure of speech to say that this abstraction is 
exalted in men's minds to the place of Divinity. Not 
only is Evolution credited with directing the progress 
of humanity thus far, but it is trusted to carry that 
progress on to a triumphant conclusion. 

In one of the most prominent pulpits of New York 
City, it was recently asserted that Evolution is the 
Hope of mankind. How different this from the revela- 
tion which the Bible gives of " the Hope which is laid 
up for you in heaven, whereof ye heard before in the 
word of the truth of the Gospel " (Col. i. 5) ! The 
Bible tells also of " the Lord Jesus Christ, who is our 
Hope " (1 Tim. i. 1) ; but the aim of those who have 
left the old foundations is ever to put something in the 
place of Christ. This preacher, and others of his school, 



"THE NEW INSPIRATION" 325 

bid their congregations look to Evolution, instead of to 
Christ, for all the improvement and blessing that is to 
come to man and his world. 

It is easy to see where this leads. In the manual of 
The Religion of Humanity it is asserted that " Socialism 
is the Evolution of the human race from cannibalism 
and savagery to fraternalism and philanthropy, from 
the infamy of the swine to the splendour of God." 

In Dr. Broda's article, from which we have quoted, 
and in which he discusses comprehensively the religious 
movements now in progress throughout the world, it is 
distinctly asserted that 

"not all the theories of modern science are of 
equal significance from the point of view of 
religious development ; indeed, it is pre-eminently 
only one concept which could arouse the necessary 
enthusiasm and devotion, and give a basis on 
which to construct a new moral ideal, THE THEORY 
OF EVOLUTION. This fundamental doctrine, which 
entails the belief that progress is the law of being 
of all that is in nature, including man himself, 
must be the new inspiration." 

This clearly states the place which Evolution is to 
occupy in the coming religion of Humanism. It is the 
only concept to which the apostles of Humanism can 
look to supply the necessary enthusiasm and devotion 
for religious service. Dr. Broda further says : 

" But more than this, Evolution, in demonstrat- 



326 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

ing the Unity of Nature, also proves the Brother- 
hood of the World, the solidarity of Creation, and 
so gives us the foundation for a new moral idea, 
and lifts us out of the utilitarianism which would 
make it appear that our best endeavours are only 
of benefit to what is sectional and transitory." 
Surely Evolution is a mighty power if it does all 
this. He continues : 

"And so the Theory of Evolution gives us a 
new conception of the universe, a new conception 
of the aim of life, and provides a new theory of 
ethics, and is thus eminently fitted for becoming 
the basis for a new manifestation of the religious 
spirit. 1 " 

If again we should ask where Evolution is to 
be found, and where and how its favours are to be 
secured, we shall inquire in vain ; for this wonder- 
working " Theory " is but a creation of man's vain 
imagination, of whose existence or operation in nature, 
outside of human affairs, no trace has ever been 
found. 

In studying the features of Humanism, the universal 
religion of the future, one is naturally curious to know 
by what services and religious exercises its devotees 
will conduct their worship. With the advent of a 
religion so grand and magnificent as its prophets 
describe, and which is worthy to replace all the historic 
religions of the world, one would expect a corresponding 



THE POVERTY OF HUMANISM 327 

improvement upon the formularies, sacred writings, 
and devotional practice of Christianity. It is not 
to be supposed that the great religion of Human- 
ism, gathering its devotees around the inspiring 
idea of Evolution, would content itself with a weak 
dilution and feeble caricature of the words of the 
discarded Book, from whose thraldom humanity shall 
have been fully emancipated. Yet this is all that the 
writer of The Religion of Humanity has to offer, as 
witness the following : 

BENEDICTION 

"May the Love of Humanity, which is the 
highest, purest, most unselfish love that Human- 
kind can know, keep alive in our Souls the Sacred 
Fire of High Resolve, nourish our Minds upon the 
Manna of generous and uplifting Thought, and 
strengthen our Hands to helpful, kindly Service. 
And may the Blessings of Liberty, Justice and 
Equity, of Peace, Happiness and Prosperity, of 
Equality, Co-operation, and Comradeship, be upon 
us and upon our Children's Children's Children, 
from this Time forth Forevermore.'" 1 

And this : 

"THE DOXOLOGY OF LOVE" 

"Praise Love, who slayeth Hate and Wrong, 
Praise Him in Word, and Deed and Song ; 



328 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

His Blessing be on Age and Youth, 
With Justice, Liberty and Truth. 
All Hail the People in their Might ! 
All Hail the Victory of Right! 
The Glory of the Common Good, 
Dear Love and Joy of Comradehood ! " 

Surely this invocation to the string of idols upon 
whom these poor idolaters call, manifests even less 
intelligence than was displayed of old by the fervid 
religionists who cried, " Baal, hear us ! Baal, hear us ! " 
or by those who raised the cry at Ephesus, for a space 
of two hours, " Great is Diana of the Ephesians." Surely 
we may feel much pity for those who know no purer or 
higher love than that of Humanity, and whose only 
vehicles for the expression of their religious worship are 
the disfigured and scarcely recognizable husks of 
ancient Christian formularies, from which all the 
substance has been eliminated. 

As to the outward forms of the coming new religion, 
Dr. Broda says : 

"The Christian institution of Sunday has 

proved itself serviceable, as has the Protestant 

order of service, with its congregational singing, 

so well adapted towards creating an atmosphere of 

brotherhood, enthusiasm, devotion, and piety." 

But Dr. Broda does not give a specimen of the 

hymns which such a gathering would sing in praise of 

the Theory of Evolution. It is difficult to imagine 



THE UNRIGHTEOUS MAMMON 329 

them singing, for example, " Praise Evolution from 
which all blessings flow," even though that would 
accurately express the creed of the worshippers. 

It is just here that the prophets of the coming era 
show a lack of foresight. When men worship, they 
must worship a PERSONALITY. The great author 
of religions, the spirit of Evil, who is back of all these 
religious activities, has his own plans for the worship 
of his dupes; and he will assuredly put those plans 
into operation when the time comes. The sure word 
of prophecy speaks plainly on this point : " And they 
worshipped THE DRAGON" (Rev. xiii. 4). "And he 
exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, 
and causeth the earth and them that dwell therein to 
worship the FIRST BEAST whose deadly wound was 
healed " (ver. 12). 

MONEY 

One more of the numerous gods of our day should 
be noticed, namely, the unrighteous Mammon ; but the 
notice at this place may be brief, for the reason that 
the subject has already been touched upon ; and, 
furthermore, the idolatry of covetousness needs not to 
be specially pointed out, for it is quite flagrant and 
undisguised. Every candid and competent observer 
of our times will admit that the pursuit of money is 
the chief concern of the day, and that money occupies 

22 



330 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

the first place in the regard of the majority of men and 
women in the centres of the civilization of our time. 
Money is more and more filling the place of a god in 
the thoughts and affections of man. The adoring 
tributes paid to Science, Evolution, Liberty, Peace, 
Fraternity, etc., are largely sentimental. The devotion 
paid to Mammon is heartfelt, practical, and intensely 
real. It carries with it the thoughts, hearts, and 
energies of its devotees. Into the pursuit of money 
the Mammon-worshipper throws himself with an 
intensity of passionate devotion ; and in his thoughts 
about money he sets practically no limits to its 
powers. 

God demands the first place in the hearts of His 
people. To love God with all the heart and soul and 
mind, is the first and great commandment. Money is, 
therefore, made a god by all who give it the first place 
in their affections. It has, moreover, such a power of 
laying hold of the affections and confidence of men, 
that the Lord's people need to be searched by the 
light of His truth to see whether they love Him more 
than their money, and desire Him more than they 
covet the money of other people. There is in money 
a subtle power to steal away from God the confidence 
of His people. 

Money is also a god to those who put their trust in 
it; and many seek it, not for the sake of procuring 
supplies to meet their bodily needs and desires, but 



THE POWERS OF WEALTH 331 

for the power and influence it confers upon its 
possessors. 

Furthermore, money is a god in that it bestows 
honours, dignities, and rank upon those who serve it 
best. The aristocracy of to-day is not so much that 
of rank, or of brains, or of culture, as that of wealth. 
What separates humanity into distinct classes is the 
fact of their having or not having money. Small 
wonder is it then that we see the multitudes 
zealously and fervently engaged in the service of 
Mammon, the financial interest taking the foremost 
place in the affairs of the world, and the nomen- 
clature of money becoming that part of human 
language which is most in use. There are probably 
no two substantives that are more frequently used 
in the conversations of the day than " money " and 
" business." 

This idolatry has infected the Lord's people, who 
have been often seduced to set their hearts upon, and 
put their trust in, uncertain riches rather than in the 
living God. When anything is to be done, the first 
thought often is, not, " Is this the Lord's mind ? " 
(though He will surely supply the need of all His own 
work) but, " How much money will it take ? " In 
many ways, of which it is not necessary to multiply 
instances, the thought is expressed that, if only there 
were enough money, this or that result could be accom- 
plished for God. 



332 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

But the need of the Lord is not for money. His 
need is rather for willing hearts and fully consecrated 
lives. It is for the lack of these that His work lags, 
and the gospel is not carried into " the regions beyond." 
God is not straitened in His finances, but in the hearts 
of His people. Oh, that they, who have received 
His unspeakable gift, might realize that they are 
debtors "both to the Greeks and to the Barbarians, 
both to the wise and to the unwise " (Rom. i. 14), and 
might diligently seek opportunity to discharge that 
debt by communicating to those, on whose behalf 
they have received the Gospel in trust, the knowledge 
of the salvation that is in Christ Jesus ! 

The service of mammon is utterly incompatible with 
the service of God, for the Lord has said, " Ye cannot 
serve God and Mammon " (Matt. vi. 24) ; and none 
have greater need to understand this than they who 
justify in their own eyes the pursuit and love of money 
by the vain thought of using it in the Lord's work. 
It is to His own people that Christ addresses this 
warning. 

In Luke xvi. 13-15, there is a most pertinent and 
timely message, in which again the principle is stated, 
"Ye cannot serve God and Mammon. 11 But the 
Pharisees, " who were covetous, heard all these things, 
and they derided Him. And He said unto them, 
Ye are they which justify yourselves before men ; but 
God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly 



AN IMAGE OF GOLD 333 

esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of 
God." 

The Pharisee was most scrupulous and exact in 
giving his tithes, and his conduct in this respect would 
pass in the eyes of men as beyond criticism. But it is 
not the money, but the heart, that God would possess. 
There is nothing, in our day at least, that is more 
highly esteemed among men than money, and this is 
expressly declared by Christ to be ABOMINATION, that is 
to say, an IDOL in the sight of God. 

Also, it is pertinent to recall that the image which 
was once set up by the world-ruler, Nebuchadnezzar, 
for universal worship, was an image of gold. And 
when again the world-ruler, who is to exercise 
authority over " all kindreds and tongues and nations," 
shall set up an image for universal worship (Rev. xiii. 
15), it will be an image of gold, in that it will represent 
the great system which man has organized for the 
creation of wealth. This is the abomination or idol 
that maketh desolate, spoken of by Daniel the prophet. 

Against the worship of this idol there is need just 
at this time to call out the most urgent and solemn 
warnings. Religion, in its last stage of utter corrup- 
tion, enters, as we have seen, into a combination 01 
intimate association with mammon, thus forming the 
great System or Consolidation with its dual aspect, 
religious and commercial. This prodigious association 
is, I doubt not, the culmination of " Mystery Babylon 



334 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

the Great, the Mother of the Harlots and Abomina- 
tions of the Earth " (Rev. xvii. 5). In this evil system, 
the complete union of religion and mammon wherein 
money-getting is made into a religion of universal 
scope, we find traffic of every sort, embracing all 
kinds of commodities from " gold and silver " to 
" slaves and souls (or lives) of men " (Rev. xviii. 
12, 13). 

And what we desire chiefly to emphasize is the 
power, which the vision that men's eyes are now catch- 
ing, of this magnificent and imposing system, has of 
deceiving all whose eyes have not been fully opened to 
recognize that the world, with all its fair appearance, 
and in spite of its religious garb and its ornaments of 
philanthropy and altruism, is the enemy of God, a pro- 
digy of deception and falsehood, with nothing but dis- 
appointments for those who trust it; and that it is corrupt 
from top to bottom and from centre to circumference. 
Nevertheless, many who truly " belong to Christ " are 
entangled in this system of Antichrist, and are con- 
suming their energies in the futile attempt " to make 
the world better." So will it be to the end ; for the 
last call of Scripture which God addresses to His people 
is given to those who are yet, like Lot in Sodom, 
lingering in Great Babylon on the eve of her over- 
throw : " Come out of her, MY PEOPLE, that ye be not 
partaker of her sins, and that ye receive not of her 
plagues " (Rev. xviii. 4). 



FINAL STAGE OF INTELLECTUALISM 335 

Therefore, we repeat the apostolic injunction : 
' Little children, keep yourselves from idols." 



ULTIMATE INTELLECTUALISM. THE 
TENDENCY OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION 

The tendency of the modern movements of thought 
may be accurately determined by noting carefully the 
attitude of those who are its leaders. In the first 
stages of a movement it is generally impossible to 
say in what it will end; but when its course has 
become definitely marked out the end may often be 
predicted some time before it is reached. We are fully 
justified in speaking of " ultimate intellectualism," that 
is to say, of the final stage of inteUectual development, 
since this development is now rapidly approaching a 
condition beyond which it is not possible to progress. 
When, through the progress of intellectualism, the 
human reason has been exalted to the place of 
supreme authority, and man is declared to be 
Divine, it is safe to say that the last stage of intel- 
lectualism has been reached. Beyond Divinity, it is 
not possible for even the imagination of man to 
exalt himself. 

It needs no long investigation to ascertain that 
Humanism, or the exaltation of man to the place of 
God, is the real religious principle involved in all 
the homage paid to Science, Evolution, Progress, and 



336 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

the like. Thus, the word " Science," as used in the 
literature, religious parlance, and pulpit utterances 
of the day, is simply a name reverentially given to 
the collective efforts of men to gather information 
concerning the physical universe. Whatever dis- 
coveries result from these efforts are not " the revela- 
tions of Science" but the discoveries of men; and 
hence the tributes paid to Science are in reality 
paid to MEN. 

Likewise, the word " Civilization " is merely an 
imposing and admiring title, bestowed upon that 
complicated state of Society which the collective 
activities of man have brought into existence, embrac- 
ing all the doings and achievements of the modern 
man, from peace congresses to submarines, and from 
aeroplanes to cigarettes. 

The worship of Man as truly Divine, and the spirit 
of Man as represented in some transcendent human 
genius or "Superman," is therefore the inevitable 
outcome of the existing forms of idolatry ; for, when 
one stops to consider the matter, it must be evident 
that the names Science, Progress, Evolution, and 
the like stand for mere abstractions, and that the 
real source, creator, and sustainer of them all is 
Man. 

Heretofore we have considered the manifestations 
of the religious principles of Humanism in movements 
of the popular sort, and as set forth by those who 



COLLEGE IDEALS SAMPLED 337 

stand forward as the spokesmen of such movements ; 
and have also considered those principles as they are 
found in the great economic movement of the day, 
that is, Socialism, which is the uprising of the masses 
of men who are neither intellectual nor learned. But 
now, and finally, we will seek an indication of the 
present state and tendency of Intellectualism, and of 
the effect of the education now being imparted to those 
who have the highest mental endowments, and who 
enjoy, at the same time, the best existing facilities for 
their cultivation. To obtain such indication we have 
only to go to the foremost seat of learning in America. 
Probably there is no institution in the United States 
which exerts a greater influence upon the formation of 
ideas than Harvard University. Some of the best 
minds of the country have their ideas formed and their 
ideals shaped in the atmosphere of that ancient and 
highly respectable seat of learning ; and upon leaving 
it they become the propagators of those ideas and 
ideals. In doing this they are aided by having, in 
addition to their own personal intelligence and culture, 
the weight of the influence and authority of the 
University. By sampling, therefore, the ideas that 
prevail, and are held in esteem at Harvard at the 
present time, we may learn what ideas will shortly 
become (if they be not already) current among the 
intellectual, or so-called "thinking," classes all over 
the land. 



338 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

Of the complete departure of this great University 
from the teaching, encouragement, or recognition 
of, anything partaking even remotely of Evangelical 
truth (or what Dr. Gordon calls the "New 
England * Theology ") it is needless to speak ; for 
the facts in this regard are well known. Our present 
interest is to ascertain, not so much what Harvard has 
drifted from, as what it is drifting (or has drifted) to. 1 

It is very striking and significant indeed to find (as 
we do) the ideals of the solidarity and supremacy of 
Man pervading the atmosphere, and saturating the 
thoughts, of those who are at the top of the scale of 
intelligence and culture, precisely as we found them to 
be the inspirations of those who are lower down 
in the social scale. From the top to the bottom 
these ideals have thoroughly permeated the mass of 
humanity. 

The spirit of twentieth century intellectualism 
manifests itself, with a distinctness leaving nothing to 
be desired on that score, in the Harvard Class Poem 
for the year 1908. This production was highly com- 
mended and widely published, in whole or in part, in 
the secular press. We quote below some of the stanzas, 
in which Satan's creed of the Deity of Man is stated 
with startling distinctness, notwithstanding the 

1 See in this connection footnote on page 304 of this 
volume ; also the author's pamphlet on Modern Philosophy : 
A Menace to the English-Speaking Nations. 



AN ANTHEM TO "MAN" 339 

obscurity which is one of the chief literary charac- 
teristics of the production. 

The appropriate title of the poem is " MAN," and 
these are the opening verses : 

" Now in the East the morning dies, 

The full light of the splendid sun 
Strikes downwai'd on our lifted eyes, 
And the long journey is begun. 
Across the shattered walls 
A voice prophetic calls, 
With tumult and with laughter 
We rise and follow after. 

"The modern world, immense and wide, 

Awaits us, huger than before, 
With new stars swimming in the void 
And science broadening evermore. 
The sweep of the limitless vast, 
The past is dead and past ; 
Yet through it all for ever 
One voice is silent never." 



The reader will note the tribute to the "modern 
world," and that to "science broadening evermore"; 
but he may require some help in order to identify 
with certainty the " voice prophetic " which is " silent 
never," and which is heard even above the tumult, 
and above the laughter, and the noise of the clanging 
city. As I gather from the two following stanzas, 



340 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

this inextinguishable voice is none other than that of 

MAN: 

" 'Mid iron wheels and planets whirled 

The clanging city, in the street, 
The machinery of the modern world 
His lips cry loudly and entreat ; 
Like one that lifts his head 
For a second time from the dead, 
Out of the Church's prison, 
The new Christ rearisen ! 

" O holy spirit O heart of man ! 

Will you not listen, turn and bow 
To that clear voice, since time began 
Loud in your ears, and louder now ! 
Mankind, the Christ, retried 
Recrowned, recrucified ; 
No god for a gift, God gave us, 
Mankind alone must save us." 

This last verse contains the essence of the poem. 
The cardinal points of its doctrine are that Mankind is 
the Christ, and that the heart of Man is the Holy 
Spirit. As the essence of the gospel of God's Word 
is that "He GAVE His ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON, that 
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish but 
have everlasting life, 11 so the loftiest note in this Class 
Poem of 1908 is struck in the line, " No god for a gift 
God gave us," wherein that text is flatly contradicted, 
and in the assertion that " Mankind alone must save 



"THE TRUTH" AND "THE LIE 11 341 

us." One of these statements, that of the Gospel, or 
that of the Harvard poet, is " the Truth," and the 
other is "the Lie." One of them proceeds from the 
"Spirit of Truth," and the other from the "Spirit 
of Error." This must be conceded by all, since the 
two statements are in direct contradiction, one of 
the other. Which is the Spirit of Truth? the Spirit 
who inspired the writer of John's Gospel, or the 
spirit who inspired the Harvard Class Poem ? This 
is a question of life and death of everlasting life 
and everlasting death ; " because they which received 
not the love of THE TRUTH that they might be SAVED," 
are given over to "strong delusion that they should 
believe THE LIE ; that they might all BE DAMNED who 
believed not the truth, but had pleasure in the 
unrighteousness " (2 Thess. ii. 10-12). 1 

The doctrine that mankind is the only saviour of 
men is amplified in the next stanza ; and, in the next 
succeeding, it is declared that men's gods are within 
themselves, and that the new world republican is 
heaven reborn in man and woman : 

" O world, grown pitiless and grim ! 

O world of men, had you but known 
Your brother is your Christ, through him 
You must be saved and him alone ! 

1 We have introduced the definite article " the " where 
it occurs in the original text. 



342 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

Love for his sorrows love 
Alone can lift you above 
The pain of your misgiving, 
The doom and the horror of living. 

" Within ourselves we must find the light, 

And in ourselves, our Gods to be, 
Not throned beyond the stars of night ; 
Here in America we must see 
The love of man for man, 
The new world republican 
A heaven, not superhuman, 
Reborn in man and woman." 

We need not quote further, nor is extended comment 
necessary. It is clear that what commended this poem, 
and procured for it the cordial reception it received, is 
not its poetical merit or its literary excellence, for in 
these particulars it is mediocre, or worse. But, as an 
expression of the blasphemous thought predominant in 
the mind of the man of to-day, though not all have the 
boldness to declare it so distinctly, these verses are 
eminently satisfactory. The lesson they emphasize for 
us is that, at the very centre of the culture and in- 
tellectuality of America, a stage of religious development 
has already been reached wherein all is fully prepared 
for the enthusiastic welcome of that man of prophecy 
*' who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is 
called God or that is worshipped ; so that he as God 
sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he 
is God " (2 Thess. ii. 4). 



GATHERING FORCES OF ANTICHRIST 343 

Thus it is written, and such must needs be the end 
of that " career of humanity " which Satan instigated, 
and for which, through his countless subtleties and 
deceits, he has continually supplied the incentive and 
inspiration. But let us be thankful that it is indeed 
the very end. Beyond this it is impossible for pre- 
sumptuous man to go. Then " the Lord Jesus shall 
be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in 
flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not 
God and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ " (2 Thess. i. 7, 8). " Who, in His times He 
shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the 
King of kings, and Lord of lords " (1 Tim. vi. 15). 

" Verily, Thou art a God that hidest Thyself, O God 
of Israel, the Saviour. They shall be ashamed and 
also confounded, all of them : they shall go to con- 
fusion together that are MAKERS OF IDOLS. 

" But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an 
everlasting salvation : ye shall not be ashamed nor 
confounded, world without end" (Isa. xlv. 15, 17). 

And now, people of God, "flee idolatry," and 
separate from all those who put their trust in idols. 
The enemies of our God are gathering into a massive, 
compact body, ignoring minor differences and magni- 
fying the great unifying principles of the Solidarity, 
Deity, and Imperial Destiny of MAN. The children of 
this age are wiser in their generation than the children 



344 LATTER-DAY IDOLS 

of light. The latter are scattered and sundered by 
discords, utterly forgetful of the Oneness of the Body 
of Christ, and giving little diligence to keep the unity 
of the Spirit in the bond of peace, that should unite all 
brethren. Let us be awake to what is going on, and 
to what these current events tell us of the near 
approach of our Lord for His waiting people ; and 
that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to 
awake out of the sleep of listlessness and indifference ; 
for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed 
(Rom. xiii. 11). Let us seek, in the little time that 
remains, to make known to those who are perishing the 
Salvation that is in Christ Jesus for all who believe on 
Him ; and others save with fear, pulling them out of 
the fire (Jude 23). 

" Assemble yourselves and come ; draw near to- 
gether ye that are escaped of the nations. They 
have no knowledge that set up the wood of their 
graven image, and pray unto a god that CANNOT SAVE. 
" Tell ye, and bring them near ; yea, let them 
take counsel together. Who hath declared this 
from ancient time ? Who hath told it from that 
time ? Have not I, the LORD ? and there is no 
God else beside Me, a just God, and a Saviour; 
there is none beside Me. 

" Look unto Me, and be ye saved, all the ends 
of the earth : for I am God, and there is none 
else " (Isa. xlv. 20-22). 



CONCLUSION 

"And thou shalt speak My Words unto them, 
whether they will hear, or whether they will 
forbear ; for they are most rebellious " (Ezek. ii. 7) 

And now, as a final word, I would make an earnest 
appeal to my countrymen of England and America 
the great English-speaking nations to whom the sub- 
jects herein discussed are matters of vital importance. 
In these great changes and mighty movements of our 
day are involved, as I firmly believe, the destinies of 
the noblest empires that have ever risen and flourished 
in the earth. Notwithstanding our many and grievous 
national sins and shortcomings, God has greatly blessed 
and prospered us above all people on earth. Our armies 
have been victorious in time of war, and our commercial 
enterprises have prospered in time of peace. By the 
good hand of our God upon us we have spread to every 
quarter of the earth, and have extended our dominion 
over more than one-third of its inhabitants. If the 
wealth of the world could be rightly computed, doubt- 
less much more than half of it would be found to be in 
our custody. The whole world has felt, and feels at this 
moment more than ever, the influence of our language 
23 



346 CONCLUSION 

and our institutions. To us, chiefly, since the apostasy 
of Israel, the custody of the Holy Scriptures seems to 
have been entrusted ; and through us the Word of God 
has increased, and its message has been carried to all 
peoples and languages and tongues and nations. For 
our fathers feared God and trembled at His Word. 
Above all the nations of this or any age, we have 
been the people of the open Bible; and, accordingly, 
above all the nations of this or any age, the God of 
the Bible has blessed us. 

But within a generation all this has changed. This 
change, in its magnitude and suddenness, is without 
parallel in the history of nations. Mr. White has 
good ground for saying that " Christianity in the sense 
of its Founder has as little in common with Europe " 
(and he might have added America) " as with Asia " ; 
and that " if He were to appear in the flesh He could not 
call Himself a Christian" The substance of all that 
we have been considering is briefly this, that we have 
entered the dark shadow of THE GREATEST NATIONAL 

APOSTASY IN ALL THE HISTORY OF MANKIND. The Bible 

does not occupy the place in England and America which, 
until this generation, it has always occupied. Our leaders 
once bowed to its authority ; now they reject it. They 
have turned away from the God of Revelation, the God 
and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ, and have discarded 
Christianity for Pantheism, the degrading religion of 
the Hindoos. What does this portend, what can it 



THE LESSON OF THE OLIVE TREE 347 

portend, but the greatest national overthrow, ruin, and 
disaster, that the world has ever seen ! 

" What shall we then say to these things ? " Shall 
we forget the lesson of the olive tree? Because of 
unbelief the natural branches (Israel) were broken off'. 
" Therefore," we Gentiles afe warned (for, says the 
apostle, " I speak unto YOU GENTILES "), " Be not 
high-minded, but fear: For if God spared not the 
natural branches, take heed lest He also spare not 
thee. Behold, therefore, the goodness and severity of 
God" (Rom. xi. 13, 19-22). We have experienced 
His goodness, and now have incurred, more than any 
other nations, His severity. Let us then not follow 
any longer these evil men, who are leading the deceived 
masses away from the Source and Giver of all good, 
the Author of all our national wealth and greatness. 
Whether reverend doctors, or learned professors, or 
ecclesiastical reformers, or social economists, or phil- 
anthropists, they are leading us into the pit wherein 
many nations have fallen, and from which none has 
ever risen again. " For the leaders of this people 
cause them to err ; and they that are led of them are 
destroyed" (Isa. ix. 16). God is giving now a little 
space for repentance ere the storm of His well-merited 
wrath breaks upon us. This is the meaning of that 
strange "hush" which has fallen upon Europe, to 
which England's greatest living orator lately called 
attention in words that have been read throughout the 



348 CONCLUSION 

world. But during this period of strange and ominous 
stillness there is proceeding a stranger and more 
ominous preparation for war, upon a scale hitherto un- 
precedented, and that at a time of profound peace. Let 
there be no mistake as to the meaning of this. It is 
not merely England's national supremacy, but her 
national existence that is at stake. And the destiny and 
interests of America are so identified with those of the 
mother country that the former will also be inevitably 
involved in the impending crisis. Moreover, the 
daughter has fully shared in the mother's sins, and will 
surely participate in the punishment thereof. For in this 
" as is the mother, so is her daughter " (Ezek. xvi. 44). 

Shall it be in vain that the instruments of God's 
righteous anger are being made ready under our very 
eyes ? Is it nothing that England's naval supremacy, 
upon which the existence of the Empire absolutely 
depends, has been definitely challenged by a great and 
warlike nation, whose ruler is a God-fearing monarch, 
who maintains the "Divine right of Kings"'? Is it 
nothing that America's western border is menaced by a 
mysterious people, stimulated by conquest, capable of 
nurturing revenge for years until the moment comes, 
and then of striking a fatal blow ? Is it nothing that 
while England and America are busy accumulating 
wealth, Germany and Japan are training every male 
subject for war ? * Let us then consider our ways ; and 

1 Prominent English journals have repeatedly called 



AN UNPARALLELED DISASTER 349 

let us be not so foolish and so oblivious of the plainest 
lessons of history as to suppose that these menacing 
evils may be averted by maintaining the " two-power 
standard," and by expending vast sums for armament. 
There is but one way whereby the English-speaking 
nations may escape the unparalleled disaster that 
menaces them : and that is, by repenting and forsaking 
their sins, and returning to the God Who gave them 
wealth and greatness. The prophecies we have been 
examining must indeed be fulfilled ; but there are to be 
some nations which, as nations, shall be admitted to 
blessing when the Son of Man shall come in His glory, 
and shall sit upon the throne of His glory. For then 
" before Him shall be gathered ALL NATIONS ; and He 
shall separate THEM one from another as a shepherd 
divideth his sheep from the goats " (Matt. xxv. 
31, 32). It may be, therefore, that God will be 
entreated for us, that the storm of His wrath may 
not overwhelm us, and that we may be hidden in 
the day of His fierce anger, " when He ariseth to 
shake terribly the earth." 

However that may be, there can be no question 
that, in a condition so serious as that which now 

attention to the significant fact that Germany and Japan 
are the only two nations on earth which compel every man to 
undergo a military training. The world has two, and only 
two, nations of trained warriors. The God of nations has a 
great purpose in this. 



350 CONCLUSION 

exists, there is a special call to God's people, few and 
feeble though they be, for an unflinching manifestation 
of individual faithfulness to Him, and to His Word : 
"For thou hast a little strength, and hast kept My 
Word, and hast not denied My Name"" (Rev. iii. 8). 
There is also a special call to them, at such a time 
as this, to separate themselves from that system of 
confusion which will soon experience the severity of 
His righteous judgments. For that vast system, 
religious and commercial, which has been the subject 
of our study, is none other than " Babylon the Great,' 1 
whose destruction has been decreed (Rev. xviii. 1, 2). 
But Scripture shows us that on the very eve of her 
overthrow there are some of God's people who yet 
linger within the dangerous sphere of her showy 
allurements. To these there comes "from heaven" 
a clear and urgent message: "And I heard another 
voice from heaven, saying, COME ODT OF HER, My 
People, that ye be uot partakers of her sins, and 
that ye receive not of her plagues. For her sins have 
reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her 
iniquities. . . . She shall be utterly burned with 
fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her" 
(Rev. xviii. 4, 5, 8). 



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